The international disaster medicine and emergency health community requested the World Association for Disaster and Emergency Medicine WADEM develop international standards and guidelines for the education and training for disaster medicine. The "Issues Paper" also was used as a framework to structure this International Meeting, which utilized case studies selected to represent the scope of disaster medicine, and prepared a meeting consensus on a framework for disaster health and for related educational programs.
The two-day Brussels meeting attracted 51 participants from 19 countries, representing 21 disciplines. Participants reinforced the need to address the development of international standards and guidelines on education and training in this emerging discipline. Participants supported the view that the term "Disaster Health" suggested a multidisciplinary approach that is a more inclusive contemporary and appropriate term to describe this field, although there were dissenting views. The meeting formulated a consensus view in support of a framework for "Disaster Health", which included: 1 primary disciplines; 2 support disciplines; 3 community response, resilience, and communication; and 4 socio-political context.
The participants considered that this model lends itself to facilitating the development of educational programs in this field and believed that standards and guidelines initially should be developed in the "Core of Disaster Health" for undergraduates in relevant professions, for practicing professionals wishing to expand their practice in this field, and in. Healthy food trends - Brussels sprouts. In fact, Brussels sprouts You will find them near the broccoli and other greens.
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Pick Brussels sprouts that are The second visit was to Professors I Prigogine and R. Balescu , of the Faculte des Sciences, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, who together direct a large group of scientists working on all. This document reports the proceedings of a conference held in Brussels to take stock on the basis of the studies conducted by the European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training and the analyses carried out in this field in all the European Community member states of the work undertaken in the last few years and to present….
Prevalence and demography of transsexualism in Belgium. The Belgian medical world has acknowledged the diagnosis of transsexualism and accepted Sex Reassignment Surgery SRS as one of the steps in the treatment of choice since This prevalence and demographic study analyses data on all Belgian individuals who have undergone SRS since that year. The results show an overall prevalence of , for male-to-female and , for female-to-male transsexuals in Belgium. In Wallonia the French-speaking region of Belgium the prevalence is significantly lower than in Flanders the Dutch-speaking region and in Brussels the bilingual capital region.
While in Flanders and in Brussels the prevalence is comparable to that in other Western European countries, in Wallonia it is markedly lower. Transsexualism in Wallonia appears to be socially less acceptable: persons suffering from gender dysphoria in that part of Belgium encounter more problems accessing gender clinics and receiving treatment. How Belfius Bank's response to the terrorist attacks in Brussels helped embed business continuity in the company culture.
Until , major terrorist incidents in Belgium were considered a 'black swan'. However, the suicide attacks in Paris on 13th November, provided a wake-up call. Investigations revealed that the raid was prepared in Belgium by jihadists who grew up in Brussels and was coordinated by Belgian ISIS fighters in Syria. In an instant, it became clear that terror had been embedded in Belgian society and could erupt at any moment. At Belfius Bank Belgium , the subsequent months were a rollercoaster ride of terrorist-related events.
Business activities were strongly affected, as the company's head office is located in the centre of Brussels. This paper focuses on the way Belfius responded to the events and how the lessons learned have helped to improve its business continuity and crisis management capability. Nonequilibrium statistical mechanics Brussels -Austin style. The fundamental problem on which Ilya Prigogine and the Brussels -Austin Group have focused can be stated briefly as follows. Our observations indicate that there is an arrow of time in our experience of the world e.
Most of the fundamental equations of physics are time reversible, however, presenting an apparent conflict between our theoretical descriptions and experimental observations.
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Many have thought that the observed arrow of time was either an artifact of our observations or due to very special initial conditions. An alternative approach, followed by the Brussels -Austin Group, is to consider the observed direction of time to be a basic physical phenomenon due to the dynamics of physical systems. This essay focuses mainly on recent developments in the Brussels -Austin Group after the mids. The fundamental concerns are the same as in their earlier approaches subdynamics, similarity transformations , but the contemporary approach utilizes rigged Hilbert space whereas the older approaches used Hilbert space.
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Language is both a divisive and a unifying force in Brussels. Historically predominantly Dutch-speaking, surrounded by the officially Dutch-speaking federal state of Flanders, located in a majority Dutch-speaking nation-state, and with the majority of its Belgian citizens Francophone, Brussels has officially been bilingual Dutch-French since Robert Barrett Chief, International.
Education Policy Outlook: Belgium.
This policy profile on education in Belgium is part of the "Education Policy Outlook" series, which presents comparative analysis of education policies and reforms across OECD countries. Building on the OECD's substantial comparative and sectoral knowledge base, the series offers a comparative outlook on education policy by providing…. Belgium is an attractive country to work in, not just for doctors but for all Spanish workers, due to it having the headquarters of European Union. The health job allure is double; on the one hand, the opportunity to find a decent job, and on the other, because it is possible to develop their professional abilities with patients of the same nationality in a health system with a different way of working.
The Belgium health care system is based on security social models. Health care is financed by the government, social security contributions, and voluntary private health insurance. Primary care in Belgium is very different to that in Spain. Citizens may freely choose their doctor general practitioner or specialist increasing the lack of coordination between primary and specialized care. This leads to serious patient safety problems and loss of efficiency within the system. Belgium is a European country with room to improve preventive coverage.
General practitioners are self-employed professionals with free choice of setting, and their salary is linked to their professional activity. Ambulatory care is subjected to co-payment, and this fact leads to great inequities on access to care. It takes 3 years to become a General Practitioner and continuing medical education is compulsory to be revalidated. In general, Belgian and Spaniards living and working in Belgium are happy with the functioning of the health care system.
However, as doctors, we should be aware that it is a health care system in which access is constrained for some people, and preventive coverage could be improved. All rights reserved. Chemical submission to commit robbery: a series of involuntary intoxications with flunitrazepam in Asian travellers in Brussels. Between January 17, and August 29, , the Emergency Department admitted a patient who had been surreptitiously intoxicated and robbed of his valuables every Friday. The first cases were considered anecdotal, but criminal activity was rapidly suspected.
The cohort includes 16 male Asian patients aged years. All the victims had just arrived in Brussels through one of the main rail station of the town and were admitted via the emergency ambulance service from different locations in the centre of Brussels around the CHU Saint-Pierre Hospital. Haemodynamic parameters upon admission were within normal limits.
One of the Japanese patients, who returned to Belgium afterwards for professional reasons, was approached by the police and accepted to press charges. This allowed the police to investigate and send undercover agents to the railway station on Friday afternoons and evenings. They found a person who was offering welcome cookies to Asian travellers. He arrived from Amsterdam and returned once his crime was committed. Flunitrazepam is well known as a rape drug. We report a series of victims in whom flunitrazepam was used to facilitate robbery.
A cluster of airport malaria in Belgium in In Europe 64 cases of airport malaria have been registered between and , most of them in France, Switzerland and Belgium. In the summer of six cases of airport malaria occurred at the International airport of Brussels , Belgium. Of the six patients three were airport employees, three were occasional visitors.
Two different species of Plasmodium were detected, and infections occurred on at least two different floors of the airport. An inquiry revealed that the cabin of airplanes is correctly sprayed, according to WHO recommendations, but that the inside of the hand luggage, the cargo hold, the animal compartment, the wheel bays and container flights remain possible shelters for infected mosquitoes.
In a case of fever of unknown origin, airport malaria should be considered in the differential diagnosis, especially during hot summers, and when thrombocytopenia is present. Additional antimosquito measures should be generalised, encompassing highly exposed personnel, container content and handling buildings, animal cages, wheel bays, and the boundary between the sorting and the reception of luggage.
Childhood lead poisoning in Brussels. Prevalence study and etiological factors. The objectives of this study were twofold: firstly, to assess the frequency prevalence of childhood lead poisoning in some districts of Brussels and second, to identify within the dwellings the major source of lead as well as the risk factors connected with this intoxication.
The study population participants was selected among children who visited childhood health centres in downtown Brussels. The reference group was chosen among children living outside Brussels city center. A casecontrol study was undertaken to meet the second objective of the investigation.
The major cause of intoxication is the presence of old lead-based paints in dwellings Odd Ratio OR : 4. Hand-to-mouth activity, pica activity OR: When the dwellings are undergoing renovation, this risk increases OR: 7. Future climate impact on unfavorable meteorological conditions for the dispersion of air pollution in Brussels.
Belgium is one of the several countries in Europe where air quality levels of different pollutants such as ozone, NOx, and Particulate Matter PM still exceed the prescribed European norms multiple times a year EEA, These pollution peaks have a great impact on health and environment, in particular in large cities and urban environments. It is well known that observed concentrations of air pollutants are strongly influenced by emissions and meteorological conditions and therefore is sensitive to climate change.
As the effects of global climate change are increasingly felt in Belgium , policy makers express growing interest in quantifying its effect on air pollution and the effort required to meet the air quality targets in the next years and decennia Lauwaet et al.
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The first index gives a measure of the horizontal and vertical transport of nonreactive pollutants in stable atmospheric conditions and has been proposed and tested by Termonia and Quinet In this way low values for l in the lower part of the boundary layer during an extended time span of 12 hours, correspond to calm situations and a stable atmosphere and thus indicate unfavorable conditions for the dispersion of air pollution.
This transport index is similar to an index used in an old Pasquill-type scheme but is more convenient to use to detect the strongest pollution peaks.
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The well known Pasquill classes are also calculated in order to. Relationships between aeroallergen levels and hospital admissions for asthma in the Brussels -Capital Region: a daily time series analysis. Outdoor pollen grain and fungal spore concentrations have been associated with severe asthma exacerbations at the population level. The specific impact of each taxon and the concomitant effect of air pollution on these symptoms have, however, still to be better characterized. This study aimed to investigate the short-term associations between ambient concentrations of various aeroallergens and hospitalizations related to asthma in the Brussels -Capital Region Belgium , an area recording especially high rates of admissions.
A significant increase in asthma hospitalizations was observed for an interquartile range increase in grass 5. Air pollutants impacted the relationships too: the risk appeared to be stronger for grass and birch pollen concentrations in case of high PM 10 and O 3 concentrations respectively. These findings suggest that airborne grass, birch and hornbeam pollen are associated with severe asthma exacerbations in the Brussels region.
These compounds appear to act in synergy with air pollution and to more specifically affect young and intermediate age groups.