De kelder was na een aantal jaar gebruik eigenlijk ook wel een beetje afgeleefd. De muren zijn gewit, oude meubels en rotzooi zijn weggegooid en het meest in het oog springende: er ligt nu ook beneden een schitterende houten vloer! Hier werd namelijk bijna niet meer op gespeeld. Op termijn als de coronamaatregelen worden versoepeld willen we op de plek van het biljart een mooie houten stamtafel neerzetten, waar je spelletjes kunt spelen, een krantje kunt lezen of met je vrienden een avond bier drinken. Ook hebben de dartbanen tijdelijk weggehaald. Als we weer wat dichter bij elkaar mogen zitten zal er waarschijnlijk weer een dartbord terugkomen voor de liefhebbers.
Kom dus snel een keer onze nieuwe kelder bewonderen! En dat proef je terug in de speciaalbiertjes die van de tap komen! Topkwaliteit dus. En daar gaan Steve en Adeline vanzelfsprekend gewoon mee door. Dat wil zeggen dat er aan geen enkele brouwerij verplichtingen zijn. Maar ook het veelgeprezen alcoholvrij Heineken 0. En wel gewoon vanaf de tap! Je ziet het hieronder in de taplijst. Deze verandert regelmatig en is afhankelijk van het seizoen. En zodra er nieuwe varianten speciaalbier beschikbaar komen, past Steve de taplijst aan. Biertas kopen bij Cafe Westerdok I.
Bier van de Week - Oktober Nala inspecteert ons nieuwe bier van de week, de Purra ! Bij het bier van de week krijg je ook een bakje nootjes! Gratis designerglas bij Duvel. Welke biertjes zijn op tap? Abonneer op onze nieuwsbrief. This recognition is based on both the Qur'an and the Hadith.
In the Qur'an, there are many references to animals, detailing that they have souls, form communities, communicate with God and worship Him in their own way. Muhammad forbade his followers to harm any animal and asked them to respect the rights of animals. The two main philosophical approaches to animal rights are utilitarian and rights-based. Deontologists argue that there are acts we should never perform, even if failing to do so entails a worse outcome.
There are a number of positions that can be defended from a consequentalist or deontologist perspective, including the capabilities approach , represented by Martha Nussbaum , and the egalitarian approach , which has been examined by Ingmar Persson and Peter Vallentyne.
The capabilities approach focuses on what individuals require to fulfill their capabilities: Nussbaum argues that animals need a right to life, some control over their environment, company, play, and physical health. Stephen R. Clark , Mary Midgley , and Bernard Rollin also discuss animal rights in terms of animals being permitted to lead a life appropriate for their kind.
Rosalind Hursthouse has suggested an approach to animal rights based on virtue ethics. Nussbaum writes that utilitarianism, starting with Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill, has contributed more to the recognition of the moral status of animals than any other ethical theory. Singer is not a rights theorist, but uses the language of rights to discuss how we ought to treat individuals.
He is a preference utilitarian , meaning that he judges the rightness of an act by the extent to which it satisfies the preferences interests of those affected. His position is that there is no reason not to give equal consideration to the interests of human and nonhumans, though his principle of equality does not require identical treatment. A mouse and a man both have an interest in not being kicked, and there are no moral or logical grounds for failing to accord those interests equal weight.
Interests are predicated on the ability to suffer, nothing more, and once it is established that a being has interests, those interests must be given equal consideration.
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Singer argues that equality of consideration is a prescription, not an assertion of fact: if the equality of the sexes were based only on the idea that men and women were equally intelligent, we would have to abandon the practice of equal consideration if this were later found to be false. But the moral idea of equality does not depend on matters of fact such as intelligence, physical strength, or moral capacity. Equality therefore cannot be grounded on the outcome of scientific investigations into the intelligence of nonhumans. All that matters is whether they can suffer.
Commentators on all sides of the debate now accept that animals suffer and feel pain, although it was not always so. Bernard Rollin , professor of philosophy, animal sciences, and biomedical sciences at Colorado State University, writes that Descartes' influence continued to be felt until the s. Veterinarians trained in the US before were taught to ignore pain, he writes, and at least one major veterinary hospital in the s did not stock narcotic analgesics for animal pain control.
In his interactions with scientists, he was often asked to "prove" that animals are conscious, and to provide "scientifically acceptable" evidence that they could feel pain. Scientific publications have made it clear since the s that the majority of researchers do believe animals suffer and feel pain, though it continues to be argued that their suffering may be reduced by an inability to experience the same dread of anticipation as humans, or to remember the suffering as vividly.
Singer writes that, if language were needed to communicate pain, it would often be impossible to know when humans are in pain, though we can observe pain behavior and make a calculated guess based on it. He argues that there is no reason to suppose that the pain behavior of nonhumans would have a different meaning from the pain behavior of humans. Tom Regan, professor emeritus of philosophy at North Carolina State University, argues in The Case for Animal Rights that nonhuman animals are what he calls "subjects-of-a-life", and as such are bearers of rights.
Although only humans act as moral agents, both marginal-case humans, such as infants, and at least some nonhumans must have the status of "moral patients". Moral patients are unable to formulate moral principles, and as such are unable to do right or wrong, even though what they do may be beneficial or harmful. Only moral agents are able to engage in moral action. Animals for Regan have " intrinsic value " as subjects-of-a-life, and cannot be regarded as a means to an end, a view that places him firmly in the abolitionist camp.
His theory does not extend to all animals, but only to those that can be regarded as subjects-of-a-life.
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Whereas Singer is primarily concerned with improving the treatment of animals and accepts that, in some hypothetical scenarios, individual animals might be used legitimately to further human or nonhuman ends, Regan believes we ought to treat nonhuman animals as we would humans. He applies the strict Kantian ideal which Kant himself applied only to humans that they ought never to be sacrificed as a means to an end, and must be treated as ends in themselves.
Gary Francione, professor of law and philosophy at Rutgers Law School in Newark, is a leading abolitionist writer, arguing that animals need only one right, the right not to be owned. Everything else would follow from that paradigm shift. He writes that, although most people would condemn the mistreatment of animals, and in many countries there are laws that seem to reflect those concerns, "in practice the legal system allows any use of animals, however abhorrent.
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In deciding what counts as "unnecessary", an animal's interests are weighed against the interests of human beings, and the latter almost always prevail. Francione's Animals, Property, and the Law was the first extensive jurisprudential treatment of animal rights. In it, Francione compares the situation of animals to the treatment of slaves in the United States , where legislation existed that appeared to protect them while the courts ignored that the institution of slavery itself rendered the protection unenforceable.
He argues that a focus on animal welfare, rather than animal rights, may worsen the position of animals by making the public feel comfortable about using them and entrenching the view of them as property. He calls animal rights groups who pursue animal welfare issues, such as People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals , the " new welfarists ", arguing that they have more in common with 19th-century animal protectionists than with the animal rights movement; indeed, the terms "animal protection" and "protectionism" are increasingly favored.
His position in was that there is no animal rights movement in the United States. Mark Rowlands , professor of philosophy at the University of Florida, has proposed a contractarian approach, based on the original position and the veil of ignorance —a "state of nature" thought experiment that tests intuitions about justice and fairness—in John Rawls 's A Theory of Justice In the original position, individuals choose principles of justice what kind of society to form, and how primary social goods will be distributed , unaware of their individual characteristics—their race, sex, class, or intelligence, whether they are able-bodied or disabled, rich or poor—and therefore unaware of which role they will assume in the society they are about to form.
The idea is that, operating behind the veil of ignorance, they will choose a social contract in which there is basic fairness and justice for them no matter the position they occupy. Rawls did not include species membership as one of the attributes hidden from the decision makers in the original position. Rowlands proposes extending the veil of ignorance to include rationality, which he argues is an undeserved property similar to characteristics including race, sex and intelligence.
American philosopher Timothy Garry has proposed an approach that deems nonhuman animals worthy of prima facie rights. In a philosophical context, a prima facie Latin for "on the face of it" or "at first glance" right is one that appears to be applicable at first glance, but upon closer examination may be outweighed by other considerations. In his book Ethics: A Pluralistic Approach to Moral Theory , Lawrence Hinman characterizes such rights as "the right is real but leaves open the question of whether it is applicable and overriding in a particular situation".
Garry supports his view arguing:. My point is that like laws govern all who interact within a society, rights are to be applied to all beings who interact within that society.
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This is not to say these rights endowed by humans are equivalent to those held by nonhuman animals, but rather that if humans possess rights then so must all those who interact with humans. In sum, Garry suggests that humans have obligations to nonhuman animals; animals do not, and ought not to, have uninfringible rights against humans. Women have played a central role in animal advocacy since the 19th century. The modern animal advocacy movement has a similar representation of women.
They are not invariably in leadership positions: during the March for Animals in Washington, D. In the Netherlands, Marianne Thieme and Esther Ouwehand were elected to parliament in representing the Parliamentary group for Animals. The preponderance of women in the movement has led to a body of academic literature exploring feminism and animal rights; feminism and vegetarianism or veganism, the oppression of women and animals, and the male association of women and animals with nature and emotion, rather than reason—an association that several feminist writers have embraced.