In , he generation, he was called St. Simon the brought a powerful fleet, partly fitted out Righteous. Miracles were ascribed to at his own expense, to the relief of Rohim, and the people murmured that canon- chelle, which was besieged by the Cathoization was withheld from hinm. Though lics, but did not effect any thing, and, Sinmon de Montfort was slain, his lifeless returning to Normandy, connected himremains outraged, and his acts branded as self with the Protestant noblesse of that those of a usurper, yet, in spite of author- province.
After several battles, he was ity and prejudice, his bold and fortunate obliged to throw himself into the castle innovation survived. He disclosed to the of Dornfront, where, in spite of a vigorous world whether conscious or not of the resistance, he was at length overpowered importance of his mleasure , the great May 27, , and made prisoner, by the principle of popular representation, which royalist general Matignon. By the comhas drawn forth liberty from the walls of mand of Catharine of Medici, MIatignon single cities, has removed all barriers to transferred his captive to Paris, where he the extent of popular governments, and was beheaded, June 26 of the same year, has given them a regularity, order and displaying the most heroic courage on the vigor which put to shame the boasted scaffold.
States, was inventor of the balloon, the son of a paper- born in , in the north of Ireland. He maker, was born at Vidalon-ls-Annonai, embraced the profession of arms, and in , and, with his elder brother, Jo- served under Wolfe, at Quebec, in ; seph Mlichael born , died , de- but, on his return to England, he left his voted himself to the study of mathematics, regiment, although his prospects of promechanics, physics and chemistry.
They motion were fair. He then removed to carried on the manufactory of their father America, for which country he entertogether, and were the first who made tained a deep affection, purchased an vellum paper. Joseph was also the in- estate in New York, about miles from ventor of the water-ram, which raises the city, and married a daughter of judge water to the height of 60 feet. His broth- Livingston.
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See Aeronautics. In his youth, he was the the continental forces in the northern deinnocent cause of the death of Henry II. The latter, however, fell sick, lances, at a tournament held in , in and the chief command, in consequence, honor of the marriage of his daughter devolved upon Montgomery, who, after Elizabeth with Philip, king of Spain, when various successes the reduction of Fort he desired to run a tilt with the young Chamblee, the capture of St.
John's, and Montgomery, then a lieutenant in the of MIontreal , proceeded to the siege of Scotch guards. The latter consented Quebec. This he commenced Dec. In the encounter, his but, as his artillery was not of sufficient lance struck with such violence on the calibre to make the requisite impression, visor of the king, as to raise it, and pass he determined upon attempting the capthrough his head, just above the right ture of the place by storm. The prince died 11 days after, corn- his arrangements, and advanced, at the manding that Montgomery should not be head of the New York troops, along the proceeded against on account of the acci- St.
He assisted, with his own dent. The latter retired to his estate in hands, in pulling up the pickets, that obNormandy, which he left, for a time, to structed his approach to the second bartravel, and returned to France at the time rier, which he was resolved to force, when of the first civil war, in which he acted as the only gun fired fiom the battery of the a leader of the Protestants. He defended enemy killed him and his two aid-de Rouen, with great bravery, against the camps. The three fell at the same time, royal army, in , and, on the capture and rolled upon the ice formed upon of the city, made his escape to HIIavre.
On the river. The next day his body was the night of St. Congress di- During his confinement, he wrote a volrected a monument, with an inscription, ume of poems, which he published in to be erected to his memory, and placed , under the title of Prison Amusein front of St. Paul's church, in New ments. In the following year, he gave to York, and, July 8, , his remains were the press a volume of essays, called the brought from Quebec, in consequence of Whisperer.
His Battle of Alexandria, a resolve of the state of New York, and and other poems, in the first volume of interred near the monument. General the Poetical Register, were extensively Montgomery was gifted with file abilities, admired.
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Encouraged by the applause and had received an excellent education. The sorrow for Poems, and, in spite of a severe criticism his loss was heightened by the esteem in the Edinburgh Review, they rose into which his amiable character had gained popularity, and established his reputation. At the period of his death, he was His subsequent works are, the West Inonly 38 years of age. He is not to be years at Fulneck, during which he ac- confounded with Robert.
Montgomery, auquired Greek, Latin, French and German. In MoNTH; the 12th part of the year, and his 15th year, he projected an epic poem so called firom the moon, by whose moonl the wars of Alfred. His tutors en- tions it was regulated, being properly the deavored, in vain, to wean him from that time in which the moon runs through the love of the muse which they believed to zodiac.
For the civil division of months, be incompatible with his intended calling see the articles Calendar, and Epoch.
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Illuminative tention to lay pursuits. He was placed month is the interval between the first with a person who kept a shop at Mirfield, appearance of one new moon and that of but this situation he soon quitted for the next following. As the moon appears another of the same kind; and, finally, sometimes sooner after one change than with a volume of his poems, he travelled after another, the quantity of the illuminato London, and, for some time, was in tive month is not always the same.
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The the shop of a Mr. Harrison, in that city. Turks and Arabs reckon by this month. In , Montgomery settled at Sheffield, Lunar periodical month is the time in and engaged with Mr. Gales, the publisher which the moon runs through the zodiac, of the Sheffield Register. Gales, be- or returns to the same point again, the ing threatened with a prosecution, was quantity of which is 27 days, 7 hours, obliged to leave England, in , and, 43 minutes, 8 seconds. Lunar synodical by the assistance of a friend, Montgomery month, called also a lunation, is the time was enabled to become the proprietor of between two conjunctions of the moon the paper, the name of which he changed with the sun, or between two new moons, to that of the Iris.
Two prosecutions the quantity of which is 29 days, 12 hours, were successively instituted against him; 44 minutes, 3 seconds, 11"'. Astronomical, or person, as one of his chamberlains. He natural month, is that measured by some was afterwards appointed to the comexact interval, corresponding to the motion mand of the department of the Loire, and of the sun or moon; such are the lu- was proceeding to oppose a vigorous renar and solar months above mentioned. His first thought was to resign his ing nearly to the quantity of some astro- command, and hasten to his master at nomical month.
These may lie either Versailles.
From this hour, his fate and lunar or solar. The civil lunar month that of Napoleon became inseparable. He consists alternately of 29 and 30 days.
This voluntarily partook of the ex-emperor's was the month in civil or common use imprisonment at St. Helena, and continued among the Jews, Greeks and Romans, with him till the period of his decease. The civil He was executor of the emperor, and has solar month consisted alternately of 30 since returned to Paris, where, in connexand 31 days, excepting one month of the ion with Gourgaud, he edited the MSS.
Under Augustus, the sixth month Fusignano, in the territory of Ferrara, till then, fioro its place, called Sextilis about , studied at Ferrara, after received the name Augustus now uRzgust , which he went to Rome, where he found in honor of that prince; and, to make the patrons, and was appointed secretary of compliment still greater, a day was added Luigi B raschi, nephew of the pope.
As to it, which made it consist of 31 days, he wore the clerical dress, he was called though, till then, it had only contained 30 abbate. The Arcadia received him days; to compensate for which a day was as a member. Excited by the fame of taken from February, making it consist of Alfieri, he wrote two tragedies-Galeotto 28 days, and 29 every fourth year. Such dManfredo, and dristodemo-the splendid are the civil or calendar months now used style of which was indeed admired, but through Europe.
Ionth, in English stat- the plots were thought too tragic, and drautes is a lunar monthl, of 28 days, unless matic action was wanting. The murder otherwise expressed. Two other podragoons, and young Montholon entered ems, the Musogonm and Feroniade, are less the army at the age of He com- known in their original form,for, the French menced his career by serving under Bo- having soon after entered Rome, the author naparte, on the celebrated day of the 18th suppressed the first edition, and prepared of Brumaire, and was in the list of the offi- a second, in which the reproaches formercers who received swords, as marks of ly directed against Bonaparte and his ardistinction, from the first consul, on that my were levelled against the allied princes.
Hie was accused, indeed, of having every campaign subsequent to that period, acted, on a mission. During a time when the kept him in office. The campaign of. Suwaroffin Italy, in , obliged him to part in that assembly. From that period, flee to France. The battle of Marengo he came forward, on every occasion, as restored him to Milan, where he sung the one of the most determined of the royalist Death of Mascheroni. This poem excit- party, and sometimes carried his zeal to a ed almost as much admiration as the Bas- length which was prejudicial to the cause villiana, but, as some satirical hits gave of- that he espoused.
He did infinite misfence, he did not finish it. He was scarce- chief to the monarch, by his opposition to ly appointed professor of belles-lettres at Mirabeau, at a moment when that orator the college of Brera when he received an was desirous of giving his powerfiul supinvitation to Pavia, as professor of elo- port to the tottering throne. In , he quence; but Napoleon appointed him his- was guilty of a great want of foresight, in toriographer of the kingdom of' Italy, voting for the self-denying decree, which with the charge of celebrating his achieve- ordered that the members of the national ments.
Accordingly the poet composed assembly should not be elected to the his Bardo della Selva nera, of which six ensuing legislative body.
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By this absurd cantos appeared in This very sin- decree, all political influence was thrown gular work met with strong disapproba- into the hands of those who were hostile tion, against which Monti attempted a vin- to the monarchy. Montlosier emidication, in a letter to Bettinelli. He then grated, and, after having been employed went to Naples to join Joseph Bonaparte, on the continent till 1. His tragedy Cajo which he conducted on the same plinciGracco likewise found little favor, as also plcs that he had manifested in the national some musical dramas.
The poetry was assembly. In , he was selected to considered as too close an imitation of proceed to Paris, for the purpose of proDante, though not without many beauties. He was muderstanding Greek the Iliad of Homer. He died in October, During those it Dante engentilito. His Proposta di al- ten days, he had secret audiences of the cune Correzioni ed dggiunte al Vocabola- minister for the foreign department, who rio della Crusca contains a treasure ofcrit- informed him, ostensibly in confidence ical and ]exicographical information on that it was the design of the first consul to the Italian language.
A complete edition reestablish the ancient church of France, of his works, with a notice of his life, has to recall the emigrants, and restore the been announced by his daughter. On his return to England, MontThomas Jefferson, the third president losier began to change the tone of his of the U. It is situated in Albe- journal; and the British government, in marle county, Virginia, two miles south- consequence, withdrew its protection from east of Charlottesville; lon. In , the ministers of the police lat.
The summit on which the and foreign department invited him back house stands is feet above Rivanna to his country, and he accepted the invitariver, which flows at its base, and affords tion. He settled at Paris, and continued an extensive and beautifulprospect. The his journal there, but dropped it at the house has lately been sold.
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The In , he was chosen deputy to the emperor, soon after, ordered him to write states-general, by the nobility of Riom. About the close of , Montlo- manufactories. Large quantities of plassier requested permission to travel in Italy, ter of Paris are obtained from its quarries. See natural history-a pursuit which he had Chatillon. After the first restoration, he brated valley of Montmorency, on the borpublished his work On the French Mon- ders of the forest of the same name. In archy, from its Establishment to the pres- this beautifuil valley is the hermitage ent Period 3 vols. N'ouvelle HEloise, and which was aftervolumes, bringing it down to the year wards occupied by Gretry.
The garden Hie refused to vote for the addi- attached to it contains a bust of the fortional act, proposed by Napoleon; but he mer, and a marble monument tothe memwas, nevertheless, removed from office on ory of the latter. Montmorency is now the second return of the Bourbons. For awatering-place, containing sulphureous feadal institutions Montlosier has a vio- springs, which supply baths a day. Francis confelred on the theatre during the two occupations of him the dignity of constable in , on the French capital by the allied forces.