Women in Religion. Continuum International Publishing Group. Archived from the original on Retrieved Castle and its surroundings. Historia agraria y social de Cayambe. Consultado el 8 de junio de Ciudad Real. Imprensa Nacional. Kistler, p. Sloan, p. Retrieved 19 September De geschiedenis van een tegendraadse traditie. Samurai Women — Bloomsbury Publishing. Hacker and Margaret Vining, p. The Hindu. Chennai, India. Archived from the original on 30 October Archived from the original on January 8, New York, U.
Neves de Antanho. Norwegian Genealogical Society. Retrieved February 1, Libris In Stephen, Leslie; Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography London: Harper. Great Britain and Ireland. London: Bell, Hutton, pp.
Dictionary of Canadian Biography. University of Toronto Press. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Stefanowska: Biographical Dictionary of Chinese Women: v. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. We might conclude that given the research which goes into compiling official reference books and dictionaries, underpinned by the increasing opportunity for submitted evidence and corrections over decades, its is doubtful that the term black market originated from a very old story or particular event.
If there were any such evidence it would likely have found its way into the reference books by now. The expression black market is probably simply the logical use of the word black to describe something illegal, probably popularised by newspapers or other commentators. The word black is a natural choice and readily understood for describing anything negative, theatening or illicit, and has been used, in some cases for centuries, to describe all sorts of unapproved, sinister or illegal things - e.
The first use and popularity of the black market term probably reflect the first time in Western history that consumer markets were tightly regulated and undermined on a very wide and common scale, in the often austere first half of the s, during and between the world wars of and more so in Further to the above entry I am informed thanks Dr A Summers, Mar of another fascinating suggestion of origin: " The market town of Crieff in Perthshire was the main cattle market up till , but at the start there was opposition from the Provost in Perth, so there was an illegal trade in cattle before it became the official Drover's Tryst or cattle market.
The cattle were known as The Black hence the origin of the regiment The Black Watch, a militia started to protect the drovers from rustlers so the illegal market was known as the 'black market' Legend has it that whoever kisses the blarney stone will enjoy the same ability as MacCarthy. When a person is said to 'have kissed the Blarney stone', it is a reference to their having the gift of persuasion. Another interpretation thanks R Styx , and conceivably a belief once held by some, is that sneezing expelled evil spirits from a person's body.
A contributory factor was the association of sneezing with the Black Death Bubonic Plague which ravaged England and particularly London in the 14th and 17th centuries. In more recent times the expression has been related ack D Slater to the myth that sneezing causes the heart to stop beating, further reinforcing the Bless You custom as a protective superstition. Perhaps also influenced by African and African-American 'outjie', leading to okey without the dokey , meaning little man.
Various references have been cited in Arabic and Biblical writings to suggest that it was originally based on Middle- and Far-Eastern customs, in which blood rituals symbolised bonds that were stronger than family ones.
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However the expression has certainly been in use for hundreds of years with its modern interpretation - ie. In this sense, the metaphor is such an obvious one that it is likely to have evolved separately from the supposed 'blood brothers' meaning, with slightly different variations from different societies, over the many hundreds of years that the expression has been in use.
Bloody seems to have acquired the unacceptable 'swearing' sense later than when first used as a literal description bloody battle, bloody body, bloody death, bloody assizes, etc or as a general expression of extreme related to the older associations of the blood emotions or feelings in the four temperaments or humours , which were very significant centuries ago in understanding the human condition and mood, etc.
The modern expression bloody-minded still carries this sense, which connects with the qualities of the blood temperament within the four humours concept. The mild oath ruddy is a very closely linked alternative to bloody, again alluding to the red-faced characteristics within the four humours. Oxford Word Histories confirms bloody became virtually unprintable around the mids, prior to which it was not an offensive term even when used in a non-literal sense i.
In terms of a major source or influence on the expression's development, Oxford agrees largely with Brewer's dictionary of phrase and fable, which explains that the use of the word 'bloody' in the expletive sense " Rowdy aristocrats were called 'Bloods' after the term for a thoroughbred horse, a 'blood-horse' as in today's 'bloodstock' term, meaning thoroughbred horses.
Clearly, the blood-horse metaphor captures both the aristocratic and unpredictable or wild elements of this meaning.
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The use of blood in this 'aristocratic' sense would have been reinforced by other similar metaphors: 'blood' was and still is a term used also to refer to family descent, and appears in many other lineage-related expressions, such as 'blood is thicker than water' people are more loyal to their family members than to other people and 'blue blood' royalty or aristocratic people - an expression coming into England from France where 'sang blue' means of high aristocratic descent, the notion originating in Spain when it was believed that pre-Moorish old Spanish families had blue blood whereas the common people's blood was black.
The blue blood imagery would have been strengthened throughout Western society by the idea of aristocratic people having paler skin, which therefore made their veins and blood appear more blue than normal people's. It is commonly suggested thanks B Bunker, J Davis that 'bloody' is a corruption of a suggested oath, 'By our Lady', which could have contributed to the offensive perception of the expression, although I believe would not have been its origin as an expletive per se. Whatever, extending this point thanks A Sobot , the expression 'By our Lord' might similarly have been retrospectively linked, or distorted to add to the 'bloody' mix.
The flag is a blue rectangle with a solid white rectangle in the middle; 'peter' is from the French, 'partir' meaning 'to leave'. Additionally, ack G Jackson , the blue and white 'blue peter' flag is a standard nautical signal flag which stands for the letter 'P'. The letter 'P' is associated with the word 'peter' in many phonetic alphabets, including those of the English and American military, and it is possible that this phonetic language association was influenced by the French 'partir' root.
Phonetic alphabet details.
This table meaning of board is how we got the word boardroom too, and the popular early s piece of furniture called a sideboard. See also the expression 'sweep the board', which also refers to the table meaning of board. In this sense the expression also carried a hint of sarcastic envy or resentment, rather like it's who you know not what you know that gets results, or 'easy when you know how'. Since then the meaning has become acknowledging, announcing or explaining a result or outcome that is achieved more easily than might be imagined. Nowadays the term 'bohemian' does not imply gypsy associations necessarily or at all, instead the term has become an extremely broad and flexible term for people, behaviour, lifestyle, places, atmosphere, attitudes, etc.
Thus, a person could be described as bohemian; so could a coffee-shop, or a training course or festival. Bohemian is a fascinating word - once a geographical region, and now a description of style which can be applied and interpreted in many different ways. The sense is in giving someone a small concession begrudgingly, as a token, or out of sympathy or pity. The giver an individual or a group is in a position of dominance or authority, and the recipient of the bone is seeking help, approval, agreement, or some other positive response.
It is a simple metaphor based on the idea of throwing a hungry dog a bone to chew on a small concession instead of some meat which the dog would prefer. The metaphor also alludes to the sense that a bone provides temporary satisfaction and distraction, and so is a tactical or stalling concession, and better than nothing.
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It is not widely used in the UK and it is not in any of my reference dictionaries, which suggests that in the English language it is quite recent - probably from the end of the 20th century. According to various online discussions about this expression it is apparently featured in a film, as the line, "Throw me a bone down here Apparently ack Matthew Stone the film was first Austin Powers movie 'Austin Powers:International Man of Mystery' , from a scene in which Dr Evil is trying to think of schemes, but because he has been frozen for years, his ideas have either already happened or are no longer relevant and so attract little enthusiasm, which fits the expression's meaning very well.
I am further informed ack P Nix " It most certainly appeared prior to the Austin Powers movies since the usage of it in the movie was intended to be a humorous use of the already commonly used expression. It is also commonly used in the United States as 'Toss me a bone. In Argentina we use that expression very often. It is not pityful pitying at all It may have a funny meaning too I'm not sure of the origin of this phrase, but it was used in in French in 'The Law' by Frederic Bastiat.
Cliches and Expressions of origin
Here it is translated - 'The excluded classes will furiously demand their right to vote - and will overthrow society rather than not to obtain it. Even beggars and vagabonds will then prove to you that they also have an incontestable title to vote. They will say to you: "We cannot buy wine, tobacco, or salt without paying the tax. And a part of the tax that we pay is given by law - in privileges and subsidies - to men who are richer than we are.
Others use the law to raise the prices of bread, meat, iron, or cloth. Thus, since everyone else uses the law for his own profit, we also would like to use the law for our own profit.
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We demand from the law the right to relief, which is the poor man's plunder. To obtain this right, we also should be voters and legislators in order that we may organize Beggary on a grand scale for our own class, as you have organized Protection on a grand scale for your class. Now don't tell us beggars that you will act for us, and then toss us, as Mr. Mimerel proposes, , francs to keep us quiet, like throwing us a bone to gnaw.
We have other claims. And anyway, we wish to bargain for ourselves as other classes have bargained for themselves! The extract does not prove that the expression was in wide use in France in the mids, but it does show a similar and perhaps guiding example for interpreting the modern usage. If you know anything more about the origins of "throw me a bone" - especially the expression occurring in a language other than English, please tell me.
The gannet-like seabird, the booby, is taken from Spanish word for the bird, bobo, which came into English around There seems no evidence for the booby bird originating the meaning of a foolish person, stupid though the booby bird is considered to be.
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The sense of booby meaning fool extended later to terms like booby-trap and booby-hatch lunatic asylum , and also to the verb form of boob, meaning to make a mistake or blunder i. I am informed thanks Mr Morrison that the wilderness expert Ray Mears suggested booby-trap derives from the old maritime practice of catching booby seabirds when they flew onto ships' decks. The US later early 20th C adapted the word boob to mean a fool. The ultimate origins can be seen in the early development of European and Asian languages, many of which had similar words meaning babble or stammer, based on the repetitive 'ba' sound naturally heard or used to represent the audible effect or impression of a stammerer or a fool.
It is probable that this basic 'baba' sound-word association also produced the words babe and baby, and similar variations in other languages. The mainly UK-English reference to female breasts boob, boobs, boob-tube, etc is much more recent s - boob-tube was s although these derive from the similar terms bubby and bubbies. Separately, thanks B Puckett, since the s, 'boob-tube' has been US slang for a television, referring to idiocy on-screen, and the TV cathode-ray 'tube' technology, now effectively replaced by LCD flatscreens.
Incidentally a UK 'boob-tube' garment is in the US called a 'tube-top'. Returning to boobs meaning breasts, Partridge amusingly notes that bubby is 'rare in the singular Bubby and bubbies meaning breasts appeared in the late s, probably derived from the word bub, both noun and verb for drink, in turn probably from Latin bibire, perhaps reinforced by allusion to the word bubble, and the aforementioned 'baba' sound associated with babies. My thanks to John L for raising the question of the booby, initially seeking clarification of its meaning in the Gilbert and Sullivan line from Trial by Jury, when the judge sings "I'd a frock-tailed coat of a beautiful blue, and brief that I bought for a booby Men who 'took the King's shilling' were deemed to have contracted to serve in the armed forces, and this practice of offering the shilling inducement led to the use of the technique in rather less honest ways, notably by the navy press-gangs who would prey on drunks and unsuspecting drinkers close to port.
Unscrupulous press-gangers would drop a shilling into a drinker's pint of ale, which was then in a pewter or similar non-transparent vessel , and if the coin was undetected until the ale was consumed the press-gangers would claim that the payment had been accepted, whereupon the poor victim would be dragged away to spend years at sea. Pubs and drinkers became aware of this practice and the custom of drinking from glass-bottom tankards began.