We do not provide wetsuits. Our diving shop open 7 days a week has a large choice to tempt you! You will be looked after by one of our assistants who will show you the way to the cloakrooms. You are free to dive as usual while respecting the safety rules. We will give you the appointment time to enter the sphere where your dinner will be brought by our staff.
Nemo 33, Brussels: Address, Phone Number, Nemo 33 Reviews: 3.5/5
One of our instructors will look after you and give you an initiation course lasting approximately one hour. At the end of the session they will accompany you to the sphere. And also come to find you at the end of your dinner. Note: It is strongly advised that you do not fly in the 24 hours following the dive. Once you have chosen a date ideally two weeks in advance , please contact us in order that we can plan your event. Our underwater restaurant is only accessible with a reservation. All additional information can be found online!
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Smeets, Carleen H. Reijmer, Mads H. Ribergaard, and John Cappelen. Through analyses of weather station, climate model, and reanalysis data, physical links are evaluated between Baffin Bay open water duration and western GrIS melt conditions.
Nemo 33, Brussels: Address, Phone Number, Nemo 33 Reviews: 3.5/5
We show that sub-Arctic air mass movement across this portion of the GrIS strongly influences late summer and autumn melt, while near-surface, off-ice winds inhibit westerly atmospheric heat transfer from Baffin Bay. Lionel Favier, Nicolas C. The melting at the base of floating ice shelves is the main driver of the Antarctic ice sheet current retreat. Here, we use an ideal set-up to assess a wide range of melting parameterisations depending on oceanic properties with regard to a new ocean—ice-sheet coupled model, published here for the first time. A parameterisation that depends quadratically on thermal forcing in both a local and a non-local way yields the best results and needs to be further assessed with more realistic set-ups.
This study investigates the snow reliability of ski resorts in the Pyrenees France, Spain and Andorra and the French Alps under past and future conditions — using state-of-the-art climate projections and snowpack modelling accounting for snow management, i. The snow reliability of ski resorts shows strong elevation and regional differences, and our study quantifies changes in snow reliability induced by snowmaking under various climate scenarios. The snow albedo reduction due to dust from arid regions alters the melting dynamics of the snowpack, resulting in earlier snowmelt.
We estimate up to 38 days of anticipated snow disappearance for a season that was characterized by a strong dust deposition event. This process has a series of further impacts. For example, earlier snowmelts may alter the hydrological cycle in the Alps, induce higher sensitivity to late summer drought, and finally impact vegetation and animal phenology.
We focus on the role of precipitation on the high magnitude flood generation to explore in what extent such events could be explained by only atmospheric variables. The role of the precipitation accumulations prior to the flood day progressively decreases when considering floods of weaker magnitude, suggesting a higher diversity of processes involved in the generation of e.
Our results open new perspectives for flood hazard assessments directly based on climate model outputs. We propose an objective framework for estimating rainfall cumulative distribution functions in a region when data are only available at rain gauges. Our methodology allows us to assess goodness-of-fit of the full distribution, but with a particular focus on its tail. Results show a preference for a mixture of Gamma distribution over seasons and weather patterns, with parameters interpolated with a thin plate spline.
Quantifying the future contribution of the Greenland ice sheet GrIS to sea-level rise in response to atmospheric changes is important but remains challenging. For the first time a full representation of the feedbacks between a GrIS model and a regional atmospheric model was implemented.
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The authors highlight the fundamental need for representing the GrIS topography change feedbacks with respect to the atmospheric component face to the strong impact on the projected sea-level rise. Antarctic surface mass balance ASMB , a component of the sea level budget, is commonly estimated through modelling as observations are scarce. Sublimation of precipitation in the katabatic layer modelled by MAR is of a magnitude similar to an observation-based estimate.
Oceanic surface conditions coming from coupled ocean—atmosphere global climate models bear considerable biases over the historical climate. We review and present new methods for bias correcting sea surface temperatures and sea-ice concentration coming from such models in order to use them as boundary conditions for atmospheric-only GCMs.
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For sea ice, we propose a new analogue method which allows us to reproduce more physically consistent future bias-corrected sea-ice concentration maps. The daily and hourly datasets are useful and appropriate for driving and evaluating a snowpack model over such a long period.
Regional climate models RCMs used to estimate the surface mass balance SMB of Antarctica depend on boundary forcing fields including sea surface conditions. Simulations of regional climate are very sensitive to physical parameterization schemes, particularly over the tropics where convection plays a major role in monsoon dynamics. The latest version of RegCM4 was used to assess the performance and sensitivity of the simulated West African climate system to different convection schemes. Mercury is a trace metal with adverse health effects on human and wildlife. Its unique property makes it undergo long-range transport, and even remote Antarctica receives significant inputs.
This paper presents the first model that aims to understand mercury behavior over the Antarctic Plateau. We find that mercury is quickly cycled between snow and air in the sunlit period, likely driven by bromine chemistry, and that several uncertain processes contribute to its behavior in the dark period. In , the European Avalanche Warning Services agreed upon a common danger scale to describe the regional avalanche hazard: the European Avalanche Danger Scale. Using published avalanche forecasts, we explored whether forecasters use the scale consistently.
We noted differences in the use of the danger levels, some of which could be linked to the size of the regions a regional danger level is issued for. We recommend further harmonizing the avalanche forecast products in the Alps.
This difference between climate models and observations raises serious questions about the ability of the models to accurately represent future changes in Greenland climate and ice-sheet mass balance. There are also likely effects on climate predictions downstream, e. Steger, Ellyn M. To accurately predict future sea level rise, the mechanisms driving the observed mass loss must be better understood. Here, we combine data from the satellite gravimetry, surface mass balance, and ice discharge to analyze the mass budget of Greenland at various temporal scales.
We highlight its importance for understanding ice sheet mass variability. Regional climate models RCMs are a valuable tool to understand how wind patterns and general warming can impact the stability of ice shelves through surface melt. We introduced a new module of water vapor diffusion into the snowpack model Crocus.
Vapor transport locally modifies the density of snow layers, possibly influencing compaction. It also affects the original isotopic signature of snow layers. Thus, other processes are required to explain the total attenuation. This paper presents data on temporal changes in snow and firn, which were not available before. We present data on water infiltration in the percolation zone of the Greenland Ice Sheet that improve our understanding of liquid water retention in snow and firn and mass transfer. We compare those findings with model simulations. It appears that simulated accumulation in terms of SWE is fairly accurate, while modeling of the individual parameters density and liquid water content is incorrect.
Beyond scenario-based approach, global temperature levels on the order of 1. Here, we assess the ability of the MAR RCM to reproduce observed extreme temperature events and the melt energy produced during these times at 14 locations. This is potentially an artefact of the data used to drive the MAR simulation and needs to be corrected for. This paper makes a rather exhaustive overview of current knowledge of past, current, and future aspects of cryospheric issues in continental Europe and makes a number of reflections of areas of uncertainty requiring more attention in both scientific and policy terms.
The review paper is completed by a bibliography containing recent references that will certainly be of value to scholars engaged in the fields of glacier, snow, and permafrost research. Light-absorbing impurities deposited on snow, such as soot or dust, strongly modify its evolution. We implemented impurity deposition and evolution in a detailed snowpack model, thereby expanding the reach of such models into addressing the subtle interplays between snow physics and impurities' optical properties.