Stimson, Oscar S. Vanderlip, and Frank Trumbull. For reply to this message see chapter v, Document See Documents and ; , chapter v; , chapter xii. See Document , chapter v.
One of the most important Inter-Allied economic bodies, organized to make the most efficient use of the available Allied shipping. Established in to co-ordinate the purchases in Great Britain of the Allies and departments of the British Government. Though theoretically international the C. This sum was advanced specifically to discharge the Commission's excessive overdraft at its London bank, but no indications of future action were given.
A subcommittee of the Allied Maritime Transport Council. See chapter 1, Document See chapter iv, Document As an encouragement to shipowners the British Government had set up and financed a War Risk Bureau through which ships were insured at small cost. This insurance specifically excluded the risk of crossing the North Sea, and, in fact, the British took no steps to encourage this trade.
British authorities had threatened to refuse permits to C. Hoover bad sent J. White of the London Office to Holland to assist in the negotiations for interned German ships for the Commission. It was not until April that the plan was dropped. Hoover called upon him frequently to secure the necessary support of the French Government.
The U. Government agreed Letter, Lansing to W. Page, 6 December to permit German interned ships to leave American ports. From the 10th to the 15th February Hoover was in Paris discussing the relief work in Northern France with French civil and military officials.
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Hoover emphasized the perilous shipping situation of the Commission and urged active French assistance. The French reversed their decision on interned German ships made four months earlier and now requested Hoover to revive the negotiations. See chapter vi, Document Wilmink, director of the Royal Dutch Lloyd, acted as intermediary between the C. As a part of this aggressive policy the German High command agreed that an unrestricted U-boat campaign should be commenced on the 1st March For political reasons the date was postponed until the 1st April.
On the 24th March, however, the "Sussex" with seventy-five Americans aboard was torpedoed, the state Department wired an ultimatum, and the unrestricted campaign was again postponed. This resolution was introduced at the request of Mr. There was also opposition to this proposal in the Department of State on the ground that international complications might arise from the transport of contraband goods in Government ships.
Lansing to Daniels, 16th February Appointed by the British Government early in to exercise general supervision over shipping problems. The allocation of ships under British registry to the Allies was part of its duties. The British Shipping Control Committee had given preliminary decision against the proposal for the use of Belgian ships flying the British flag, and Hoover had asked A.
The Commission's program at this time required the continuous service of fifty to sixty vessels, so that these losses which had to be made good by additional charters represented more than one-fifth of its fleet. See chapter xvii. In spite of its strong advocacy by many British and Americans, the Admiralty and shipping officials did not agree to adopt the convoy system until the middle of May It required several months to establish the system, and it was not until September that there was a decisive falling off in tonnage losses.
Sims: The Victory at Sea , p. See chapter iii. Arrangements of this general character were made with other northern neutrals. During this period of reduced importations the receipts from the sale of provisions in Belgium were insufficient to finance the relief organization's huge benevolent program. See chapter xvi. Mali, Belgian Honorary Consul General. Like the other Allies the Belgian Government was hard pressed for ships.
For King Albert's telegram see chapter iv, Document Allied ownership of bunkering facilities made this control possible. No neutral vessel was allowed coal unless its charter had first been approved by the Inter-Allied Chartering Executive. Established on decision of the Allied Conference in Paris, November , to make the most economic use of tonnage under the control of all the Allies. The first organized meeting of the A. See chapter iv , Documents and A mission headed by Colonel E.
See chapter vi, Documents , , There were transported overseas , American troops in April ; , in May; , in June; and , in July. The shipment of food and equipment had naturally to increase proportionately. As has been noted in chapter iv, Documents to , the Commission was in difficulty at this time regarding the financing of its European purchases. When the Allies finally accepted responsibility for these funds, the Commission was required to make its European purchases through the medium of the Commission Internationale de Ravitaillement.
A change in operating procedure was also made at this time. With the approval of the two GovernmentsFrench and Belgianto which it was ultimately responsible for its financial accounting, the Commission cancelled all commercial insurance and set up its own insurance reserve.
Representatives of the U. Shipping Board met with but were not actually members of the A. The measures jointly adopted effected a more efficient employment of the available shipping. Stevens , American representative with the Allied Transport Council. The Germans continued the unrestricted U-boat policy until the middle of October, when in response to President Wilson's demand submarines were ordered not to attack passenger ships. For complete list of casualties and their causes see Gay, Statistics , pp.
A brief treatment of this subject and a description of the Commission's successful port arrangements which largely contributed to the effectiveness of the fleet will be found in Gay, Statistics , chapters iv and v. A small area about Furnes and La Panne remained in Belgian hands. More than half this number lived in the contiguous arrondissements of Lille, Valenciennes, and Douai. Notably chapter ii Organization , iv Finance , and v Ships.
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In reference to the early relief shipments into Belgium the French Foreign Office ". In connection with the British financial negotiations, see Documents , , chapter iv. The French situation was also raised by Hoover in Berlin in February. See Documents , , , , chapter iv. Chevrillon, C. In this letter Chevrillon described interviews with subordinate officials of the French Government and called attention to the fact that two representatives had arrived from Lille to negotiate for relief.
The other representative had gone to London. On the 1st March the British and French Governments announced retaliatory blockade measures in reply to the German "War Zone" declaration of 4th February. By the Reprisals Order of 11th March the British Government declared its intention of stopping all goods of enemy origin or destination without regard to earlier rules respecting contraband. Hoover had suggested the possibility of securing grain from the stocks in France to begin the relief in the occupied regions.
No such supply was ever forthcoming. The Commission was obliged to adopt this fiction because of the unwillingness of the French Government to admit openly that it supported financially the feeding of French civilians in the occupied regions lest the Germans use this fact as an additional argument against the legality of the Allied food blockade of Germany. This plan was never put into effect. Chapter iv, Document One-half of this was to be borne by the French Treasury.
Chapter iii, Document Sengier, Finance Department of the Commission's London office. At this time, moreover, the whole matter of continuing relief was in the balance as a result of the British threat to withdraw their consent to the operation unless Hoover secured guarantees respecting the coming Belgian harvest, which the Germans appeared unwilling to give. The seat of the Belgian Government at Havre. There was a shortage of food supplies in the world's markets at this time. See Document and footnote.
See chapter ii, Document 34 , for complete text of this telegram. See chapter viii, Documents and This committee was dissolved in late when the provisioning of the North of France by the Commission ceased. Document in chapter vii describes the work of the delegates in France. Vernon Kellogg, who was chief Representative in France and later Director of the Commission in Belgium, has written interestingly and vividly of these days in his Headquarters Nights. Chapter viii. The German threat was withdrawn and there was no suspension in the feeding.
The 20,, francs were received in September and thereafter as requested. The name used to indicate the source of funds for the relief of Northern France, which was in reality the French Government. Chapter v, Document See chapter iii, particularly Documents 70 and 82 , for negotiations with the British Foreign Office regarding importations.
See chapter iii, Document 71 , for program for Northern France omitted here.
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Though Hoover's general object in these Paris negotiations was to get active support of the French, the problem which assumed paramount importance at this time was that of shipping. In the preceding October the French had turned down Hoover's proposals for the use of German interned ships see Document , chapter v , after Hoover had secured the approval of the British Government and of the Germans to the scheme.
It is interesting to note that the French now informally suggested that Hoover revive the negotiations.