It is not known how many patients received Mebendazole for treatment of taeniosis. This was not estimated in the current study. Several factors listed below can be considered as a cost related to BCC or taeniosis but were not included in the calculations since they were either rare, case-depending or implied a very small proportion of the total cost.
However, they would even further increase the economic impact of the parasite on the animal and human health sector.
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The animal owner of a positive carcass can make the personal decision to take several actions that can lead to additional costs: official or private veterinarians could perform further investigations on the remaining animals on the farm, attempt to trace the infection or give advice on how to prevent further infections, farm workers could be tested for T. Veterinarians performing the meat inspection at the slaughterhouses regularly attend training sessions and continue professional education, and slaughterhouses are frequently audited. Examples exist of non-specific complications associated with T.
In Belgium, this is extremely rare. According to official data, in and none and in , , , and less than five patients were hospitalised with T. No data were available for and These data are not always correct and the distinction between T. Psychological stress of patients due to the presence of a tapeworm could cause additional costs not included in the analysis.
In many studies on economic burden, transportation costs to and from the physician and pharmacy are included. In Belgium, medical practices and pharmacies are present in every village, making these costs negligible. Sewage is treated before wastewater enters the waterways. Sadly, current wastewater management not only fails to halt, but rather contributes to the dissemination of eggs in the environment, leading to contaminated waterbodies and surface water [ 2 ]. Sewage sludge is no longer used in agriculture to fertilize pastures in Belgium, but in other European countries it is still allowed and can pose a higher risk for cattle [ 37 ].
For many diseases, part of calculating the burden of disease is to quantify health losses using Disability-adjusted life years DALYs. One DALY is defined as one lost year of healthy life. For taeniosis caused by T. For those few patients that will experience mild abdominal pain, DALYs can be estimated to be 0.
Undetected viable cysticerci can enter the food chain and potentially cause taeniosis in humans when they eat raw or undercooked beef. Introducing a new and more sensitive detection technique at slaughter might be one way of reducing the number of cysticerci in the food chain. This would imply that more carcasses are condemned or need to be frozen after slaughter, introducing a higher cost at first, but leading to a reduction in the number of taeniosis patients, subsequently in the number of cattle with cysticerci and eventually in the total economic impact due to BCC and taeniosis.
A model assessing new detection techniques and their impact on prevalence of cysticercosis and taeniosis and the economic impact in Belgium is currently being developed by the authors of this study.
Human tapeworm carriers are essential for maintenaining transmission, therefore, the responsibility of the medical sector and general population in the control of this parasite should not be neglected. People should be made aware of the risk they pose towards cattle when eating raw or undercooked beef and developing a tapeworm.
There is an urgent need within the medical sector for information campaigns for physicians and patients on how to treat patients and how to correctly dispose of the expelled tapeworm, in order to reduce the infection risk for cattle and the economic impact on cattle owners. In conclusion, BCC and taeniosis due to T. These results demonstrate the need to reduce the number of BCC and taeniosis cases to, in turn, avoid or reduce the costs and losses related to this parasite for the animal and human health sectors.
Emerging food-borne parasites. Vet Parasitol. Dorny P, Praet N. Taenia saginata in Europe.
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Epidemiology, impact and control of bovine cysticercosis in Europe: a systematic review. Parasit Vectors.
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General directorate for food, Slaughterhouses and cutting plants board, , Lyon, France. FJ carried out the data collection, developed the model and performed the data analyses. MK helped improve the initial model. FJ drafted the manuscript, with subsequent input from all the other authors. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Correspondence to Famke Jansen. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Reprints and Permissions. Jansen, F. Economic impact of bovine cysticercosis and taeniosis caused by Taenia saginata in Belgium.