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There was at Warsaw a very active diplomatic contest, wherein the Austrian ambassador had the Papal nuncio for his auxiliary, and the ambassador of France for his adversary. If Poland had refused, or only delayed to promise cooiperation to Leopold, the Empire would have been reduced to implore the sword of France, and the dream of Louis XIV. The French ambassador spared nothing to reassure Sobieski in regard to the projects and real power of the Turks, and to convince him that Poland had nothing to lose by the ruin of the House of Austria.

Hatred of the infidels, religious and chivalrous spirit, turned the scale with him. March 31, , a treaty of alliance was signed at Warsaw between the Emperor and the King of Poland: Sobieski promised a contingent of forty thousand men against the Ottomans. Great movements of troops took place on the French frontier. At the close of May, , the court set out from Versailles for the eastern provinces. Louis passed the month of June in inspecting the eastern garrisons, and the four camps established at Bellegarde in Burgundy, at Molsheim, at Bouquenon, and at Sarre-Louis.

Germany viewed this armament with anxiety, still doubting whether she was not to be taken between the Turks and the French. On the contrary, he offered aid to the Emperor. Prouder or more embittered than in , Leopold refused. Saint-Hilaire , t. Meanwhile, the Turks were before Vienna.

At the beginning of June, the Duke Charles of Lorraine, Generalissimo of the Emperor, had attempted to take the offensive by a diversion against Upper Hungary; but the march of the Turks across Lower Hungary had quickly recalled him to the south of the Danube. The crossing of the Raab, victoriously defended in , was this time forced, and Duke Charles had only time to effect his retreat on Vienna, so as not to be swallowed up by the enormous mass of assailants.

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It is pretended that the Grand-Viziek had under his command nearly two hundred thousand combatants, besides the multitude of useless people that follow in the wake of Asiatic armies. Clouds of Tartars, Servians, Transylvanians, and Wallachians had swollen the Ottoman army, to say nothing of Tekeli's Magyars, who were operating on the other bank of the Danube.

It seemed as if the time of barbarian invasions had returned. At the first news of the approach of the Turks, the Emperor fled with all his family, in the midst of the imprecations and cries of despair of his people. He did not stop till he reached Passau. Half the population of Vienna followed the example of Leopold.

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The brave Duke of Lorraine hastened to reassure the Capital abandoned by its sovereign, who had foreseen nothing, had provided nothing for its defence. Duke Charles reinforced the garrison, enrolled the citizens and students, burned down the extensive and beautiful suburbs, cut off as much as possible the outskirts of the city, then put the Danube between his little army and the Turks, who, July 14, pitched their tents under the walls of Vienna. The little Imperial army was only able to repulse Tekeli and hinder the enemy from extending his lines on the north bank of the Danube; it was not in a condition to trouble the siege operations.

The German contingents were tardy; Poland had as yet sent only a few light troops; the suspicious Emperor had wished to call on Sobieski only in the last extremity. This extremity had been reached, and the Emperor extended suppliant hands towards the King of Poland. Sobieski, wounded by the conduct of Leopold, had seemed to have lost much of his ardor; at the cry of despair addressed to him, his Polish generosity prevailed.

This is a very curious Impe. The ill-natured anecdote told by Choisi about the setting out of Sobieski is evidently false and ridiculous. He believed himself so sure of his conquest, that he dealt carefully with the city, not wishing to take it by assault, lest he should be obliged to give up to the soldiers the treasures he fancied he should find in the Imperial palace.

The defenders of Vienna were exhausted, their fortifications were half ruined; but discontent and disorder reigned in the camp of the besiegers, who were conscious of not being properly led. September 12, the German-Polish army finally descended from the heights of Kalenberg, which command Vienna on the northwest, the defiles of which the Grand-Vizier had not even dreamed of occupying. Seventy thousand combatants, led by Sobieski, Charles of Lorraine, the Electors of Bavaria and Saxony, and a host of German princes, marched directly to the camp of the Turks.

The Ottomans still outnumbered their adversaries more than two to one; but the Grand-Vizier knew no better how to defend himself than he had known how to attack.

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After seeing his advanced posts carried, he retreated at evening with so much haste that he forgot the standard of the prophet in his tent. Sobieski sent to the Pope this oriflamme of the infidels. Night and the weariness of the victors saved the flying army; but all the riches accumulated in the camp of the sumptuous barbarians remained in the hands of the liberators of Vienna, with an immense amount of artillery and immeasurable stores of provisions.

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As to the Emperor, bearing with the impatience of little souls the burden of gratitude, he had no other care than the maintenance of Imperial etiquette in his obligatory interview with Sobieski. The question was debated in his council how an emperor should receive an elective king.

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Duke Charles was not even understood. Leopold and Sobieski met only on horseback and in the open field. Leopold did not find a word, not even a gesture, to 1 The chains that bound together the bridge of boats thrown across the Danube by the Turks, are in the Museum of Artillery at Paris, whither Napoleon had them transported after the capture of Vienna in Such was the impression of this strange reception on the Poles that they regretted "having saved this haughty race; they wished it had perished beyond recovery.

Strigonia, the ecclesiastical capital of Hungary, which had been in possession of the infidels for three quarters of a century, fell again into the hands of the Christians October 8, ; and many places, on both sides of the Danube, submitted themselves to the Emperor. Scarcely had the campaign on the Danube been ended, when the attention of Europe was directed to another theatre, and the French reentered the lists in their turn.

He did not preserve this generosity to the end. Spain persisted in ceding nothing in the Netherlands besides the countship of Chiny; English mediation no longer resulted in anything but negotiations with the Emperor and the Empire, transferred from Frankfort to Ratisbon. The delay granted by Louis to Spain having expired at the end of August, , Louis, who had just raised forty thousand men, proceeded, according to his custom, by the way of military execution, without meaning thereby to break the peace.

The French troops entered Flanders and Brabant, and laid the open country under contribution. The cabinet of Madrid issued a declaration of war, which it was not in a condition to follow up October Marshal d'Humieres marched on Courtrai; the city, besieged November 2, yielded November 4; the citadel capitulated on the 6th.

The Marshal then turned his attention to Dixmude, which opened its gates without resistance November These two places constituted the equivalent demanded by Louis for Luxemburg, which he pretended belonged to him. After this forcible possession the army stopped, and the King granted the 1 See Letters of J.

Sobieski, published by M. Michaud, 3d series, t. Histoire de J. Sobieski, by M. Coxe, History of the House of Austria, Vol. This period passed, he would no longer be obligated to abide by the conditions offered. The governor of the Netherlands responded by a violent manifesto against France.

The French army compelled the whole country, through terror of conflagration, to pay contributions, as far as the gates of Brussels. The Spaniards undertook reprisals; 1 the garrison of Luxemburg made raids into French territory; the Marshal de Cr6qui overwhelmed the city of Luxemburg with bombshells without besieging it December 19 , a cruel species of -warfare that takes vengeance on inoffensive populations for acts to which they are strangers, that Louvois was to apply with continually increasing severity.

The Great Elector, Frederick of Brandenburg, had first given an example of it in his war against Sweden. It was in vain that Spain cried in distress to all her allies. The Emperor and Sweden were not in a condition to interfere. The King of England had made a show of breaking the secret engagements that compromised him with his own people; but Louis XIV. Charles II. As to Holland, the Prince of Orange, without consulting the States-General, had sent to the governor of Belgium fourteen thousand soldiers, instead of eight thousand, which the United Provinces, by the treaty of guaranty, were obliged to furnish the Spaniards in case of invasion; but he could not obtain a levy of sixteen thousand men which he demanded to support this first succor.

The merchants, and especially the burghers of Amsterdam, energetically opposed the war, and the Dutch troops had orders not to leave the Spanish strongholds and not to take the field against the French. January and February of having passed without Spain yielding, Marshal d'Humieres treated Audenarde as Cr6qui had treated Luxemburg: he caused a storm of bombs and red-hot shot to hail on Audenarde during three days March A month later, the French troops were everywhere put in motion.

The King in person took the command of nearly forty thousand men assembled in Hainault. A second army of thirty-two thousand combatants was formed on the Meuse and the Moselle; Marshal de Cr6qui led it to invest Luxemburg April The King, by threatening Mons and Brussels, prevented the enemy from attempting anything for the relief of 1 The King had given orders to burn "fifty villages of the Spanish dominion" for every French village burned by the enemy.

Euvres de Louis XIV. On the affairs of the Netherlands, see Mgm. The siege was conducted by Vauban. In spite of the natural strength of the place, protected by the small river Alsitz and by numerous works cut in the rock, the governor asked to capitulate after three weeks of bombardment.

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The artillery of Vauban had already opened large breaches in the bastions of rock, and the garrison, which had been found too weak to dispute seriously the external works, was not in a state to await an assault. Luxemburg surrendered June 4. Vauban immediately set to work to make it a stronghold that should rival Metz and Strasburg, — a powerful guardian of the French frontier between the Meuse and the Moselle, forming a line with Sedan, Sarre-Louis, and Landau.

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Henceforth Treves was hemmed in between Luxemburg, Thionville, and Sarre-Louis, on one side, and, on the other, thile advancepost of Mont-Royal, that separated Treves from Coblentz. Nor was this enough: the Elector of Treves had been fortifying his capital since the peace; Crequi marched on the city and obliged the Elector to raze its exterior works and fill up its fosses June In spite of the desperate efforts made by the Prince of Orange, the Dutch had been kept back by French diplomacy, very skilfully conducted on this point.

The taking of Luxemburg changed nothing in these conditions, and, June 17, the States-General engaged to propose to Spain, the Emperor and the Empire, a project of accommodation on the bases offered by the King of France; they promised to abandon Spain if she did not agree to it. June 29, Louis XIV. This was, on the part of Louis, a. The policy of Louis XIV. What was excessive was not the end, but the means, the harshness of which irritated the people against France. The dismantling of Treves, as offensive to the Holy Roman empire as it was useful to the French frontier, denoted less conciliation towards Germany than Louis showed towards Holland.

Another intervention of the French on the territory of the Empire was much more blameworthy in point of justice and humanity. Since Louis XIV. The Elector of Cologne, bishop of Liege, was desirous of again subjecting them to the yoke: they resisted.

The Elector, since the peace of Nimeguen had restored to him his minister Fiirstenberg, released from an Austrian prison, had renewed his connection with Louis XIV. He invoked the aid of the Great King. A part of the.

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The city was not in a condition to defend itself. The two burgomasters or consuls were hung as rebels. The liberties of the citizens of Liege were abolished by the prince-bishop, who sold to an oligarchical corporation of six hundred citizens the exclusive right of participating with him in the election of burgomasters and municipal councillors. The brave Liege population, so sympathetic with France, had not been accustomed to see the French government in complicity with their oppressors; they resented it long and bitterly.

The Marshal de Bellefonds had entered Catalonia at the beginning of May, had defeated the Spaniards at the crossing of the Ter, had attacked Gironde without success, then, with the cooperation of the fleet, had taken some small maritime places. These advantages were of little importance; but, during this time, auxiliaries that cost Louis XIV.

Moniteur of February 15, , edit. Spain in her American colonies.