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Patients are always administered local anaesthetics and other medications to ease the discomfort make it a comfortable and relaxing experience. Most patients report the procedure to be pain-free as well as the recovery. This is part of the process. The transplanted hair may not grow much or seamlessly match the hair around it for a few months. What are the possible side effects of hair transplantation?

The most common side effect is scarring. Some degree of scarring cannot be avoided with any procedure. FUE harvesting technique of grafts causes very small, round, and typically white scars in the patient's donor area where the grafts have been removed. With long hair, these are virtually undetectable.

We advise having your hair transplants after your FFS. There's a couple of reasons for that. The first is that the incision on your scalp disrupts the blood flow and can cause you to lose hair around the incision. Usually, it's temporary but sometimes it's not.

Trangender Hair Transplant - 2pass Clinic

Future transplants can cover this area. The other reason is that the hair transplant can be used to hide any scar tissue. In our practice not. This offers the possibility of a hair transplant without anyone ever knowing that you had one. There is a reversal of male pattern baldness in transgender women starting with hormone treatment to a degree dependent on age and likely other factors. Hormone therapy for male-to-female transgender patients with estrogen and spironolactone can not only reduce male-pattern hair distribution but can also reverse previous effects of androgen on scalp hair patterns.

The mechanism responsible for achieving hair regrowth in transgender women is the suppression of testosterone to normal female levels. Androgenetic alopecia, also known as male pattern baldness, is a process by which hair loss from the scalp occurs in a progressive, predictable pattern. Recent research has proposed that it is a result of the presence of sufficient androgen in a person with genetic predisposition. Without therapeutic intervention, hair loss will become more severe over time.

The principle of hair transplantation

We cut the long hair before reimplanting it. Some people who have committed acts prohibited under criminal law but who have been declared not criminally responsible for their actions because of a psychosocial disability are deprived of their liberty for years without access to appropriate care or the necessary safeguards concerning their placement. The Assembly notes that these issues also exacerbate the vulnerability and isolation of detainees with disabilities and prevent their social integration in prison.

Moreover, these problems are compounded by factors that have a negative impact on all detainees but that disproportionately affect prisoners with disabilities, including prison overcrowding; the tendency to imprison offenders rather than impose alternative sentences; the lack of medical staff willing to work in prison settings, which sometimes results in excessive use of immobilisation or in overmedication; repeated transfers and lack of continuity of care; and lack of staff with adequate training in assisting detainees with disabilities.

Detainees with disabilities in Europe

Lastly, the Assembly regrets the fact that the lack of up-to-date figures on the number of detainees with disabilities or the types of disability concerned prevents the introduction of appropriate measures for dealing with the problems encountered. While regretting the absence of a specific legal framework governing the situation of detainees with disabilities at European level, it would draw the attention of States to their obligations under the European Convention on Human Rights ETS No.

In the light of the above and with a view to respecting the human dignity of all prisoners with disabilities, the Assembly calls on Council of Europe member States: 7. Draft recommendation open 1. The Parliamentary Assembly refers to its Resolution … on detainees with disabilities in Europe, in which it calls on member States to take a number of measures to prevent the imprisonment of persons whose condition is incompatible with detention and to ensure that the fundamental principles of equality of treatment, non-discrimination, reasonable accommodation and accessibility are respected in the case of detainees with disabilities.

The Assembly nevertheless regrets the lack of specific attention paid by member States and international instruments to the situation of detainees with disabilities. In many cases, the conditions of detention of persons with disabilities have been found to be degrading and discriminatory. It stresses that situations where deprivation of liberty leads to a deprivation of dignity must not be tolerated. The Assembly therefore invites the Committee of Ministers to: 4.

Explanatory memorandum by Mr Manuel Tornare, rapporteur open 1.

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The protection of the rights of persons placed in detention has been a long-standing concern of the Council of Europe. Because of their confinement, detainees are at risk of ill-treatment or even torture. Some groups, in particular persons with disabilities, are especially vulnerable. Persons in pretrial detention and convicted persons may not only have a disability before being placed in detention, but may also develop such a disability in prison due to an accident or illness. Moreover, many persons with a psychosocial disability are in prison. The Parliamentary Assembly has itself repeatedly indicated its commitment to combating torture and inhuman or degrading treatment.

Yet despite the existing legal instruments and mechanisms, the situation of detainees with disabilities rarely receives special attention, even though it raises fundamental questions of human dignity. The purpose of this report is therefore to remedy this situation and carry forward the work started by the Assembly in Resolution on the fate of critically ill detainees in Europe by making proposals to improve the situation of detainees with disabilities and strengthen the mechanisms affording protection against torture and inhuman or degrading treatment.

As its title indicates, my report focuses particularly on prisons and the prison environment. Nevertheless, I also consider the situation of persons with disabilities held in other places of deprivation of liberty, in particular centres holding persons with psychosocial disabilities who have committed or are suspected of having committed criminal offences.

I wish to thank the French and Belgian authorities for all the assistance they gave me, which made these visits particularly instructive and useful. According to the Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities CRPD , States Parties must ensure that detainees with disabilities can live independently and participate fully in all aspects of daily life in detention, including having access, on an equal basis with others, to all areas and services.

Failure to comply with these four principles can result in serious violations of the human rights of detainees with disabilities. The Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners known as the Nelson Mandela Rules , revised in December by the General Assembly of the United Nations, reiterate the fundamental principles applicable to all persons who are placed in detention: their dignity must be respected; no detainee may be subjected to torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading punishment or treatment; the principle of non-discrimination must be put into practice; and the prison administration must take into account the needs of every detainee, especially those belonging to categories that are most vulnerable in prison settings.

Nevertheless, and despite the recommendations of the CRPD, these rules contain very few explicit references to detainees with disabilities. Many Council of Europe legal instruments address the ban on torture and inhuman and degrading treatment, as well as conditions of detention and the rights of persons with disabilities. However, these topics are only dealt with together in a marginal manner. In this respect, the rules are merely a reflection of the criminal law of the member States. The findings and recommendations of the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment CPT and the judgments of the European Court of Human Rights show that deplorable conditions of detention for persons with disabilities exist in many member States of the Council of Europe and underline the need to lay down precise guidelines on the measures that States must implement in order to protect the dignity and fundamental rights of detainees with disabilities.

One of the priorities of the Council of Europe Disability Strategy is the right not to be subjected to exploitation, violence and abuse. Furthermore, the rights of persons with disabilities, including when they are held in detention, are now among the issues that are examined by the Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights during country visits.

The lack of reliable data concerning the number of detainees with disabilities must be underlined from the outset. Nevertheless, there are inevitably many different disability situations to be found in prisons. When we speak about detainees with disabilities, we most often think of persons who have a physical disability. However, there are also persons with a sensory disability deafness, blindness or an intellectual disability in prison.

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At the same time, a significant proportion of inmates have a psychosocial disability, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorders, etc. For each type of disability, measures tailored to individual needs must be taken, but this is far from always being the case despite the recommendations made to member States and repeated judgments of the European Court of Human Rights against States.

People who have a physical disability or use a wheelchair are often faced with the unsuitability of prisons and cells, the unsuitability of treatment and lack of access to it and the failure to provide assistance and support. Lack of accessibility is one of the main problems that persons with disabilities face in prison settings, yet accessibility is a fundamental principle for the exercise of their rights.

This implies that reasonable accommodation needs to be applied in order not to aggravate incarceration conditions based on disability. As has been underlined on several occasions by the CRPD, denial of reasonable accommodation may be tantamount to discrimination and, in some situations, such as detention, to inhuman or degrading treatment. There are, unfortunately, very many examples of unsuitable premises and facilities cells or sanitary facilities not adapted or inadequately equipped; difficulties in moving around inside prisons.

If no suitable places are available, persons with reduced mobility are often assigned to ordinary cells.

The absence of medicalised beds and non-operational call systems pose serious problems for detainees who are bedridden or paralysed. A cell that is too small to enable a detainee in a wheelchair to move around, combined with switches which are inaccessible, toilets which are very difficult to get to and no daily access to a shower, amounts to living conditions that are not decent. Moreover, it is important for prisons to have sufficient numbers of specially equipped wheelchairs for toilets and showers. Beyond cells, the lack of accessibility in prisons means that detainees with disabilities cannot participate in daily activities or have access to services library, dining hall, toilets, outside yard, gymnasium, shop, visiting room, telephone room, prayer room on an equal footing with other detainees, and remain confined in their cells.

The detainees concerned are therefore not only deprived of activities but also suffer de facto isolation, which can have a negative impact on their mental health. This type of situation has been observed, for instance, in the Slovak Republic and France. The right to health is a fundamental right for every person. Detainees with disabilities are, however, particularly vulnerable to unsuitability or even a lack of treatment.

Detainees with disabilities in Europe

Several difficulties may be mentioned here: unsuitability, inadequacy or even absence of treatment; late access to treatment; discontinuation of treatment; failings in monitoring the administration of treatment. Although they are considered here in connection with physical disability, it should be noted that these difficulties can affect all detainees with disabilities. The European Court of Human Rights has repeatedly ruled that holding people suffering from a serious physical disability in conditions incompatible with their state of health or leaving it up to fellow inmates to look after them amounts to degrading treatment.

It has pointed out that the obligation for the State to provide adequate conditions of detention includes the obligation to meet the special needs of detainees with a physical disability and that the State cannot exempt itself from this obligation by transferring responsibility for it to detainees.

Sometimes unsuitable conditions of detention also expose detainees to an unreasonable risk of serious damage to their health or may cause them psychological or physical suffering which undermines their dignity and amounts to inhuman treatment. For people with a physical disability, the need to respect their dignity and privacy may become particularly acute. This is especially true when they are dependent on the assistance and, therefore, the good will of their fellow inmates in order to reach the sanitary facilities, as the CPT has pointed out in the case of piantoni detainees who help detainees with disabilities in Italy.

Proper training and supervision are vital in these cases. Where appropriate, other persons assist the relevant detainees with daily tasks.