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When America declared war, he blamed the Jews. Nearly three years earlier, on 30 January , Hitler had told the Reichstag : "if the international Jewish financiers in and outside Europe should succeed in plunging the nations once more into a world war, then the result will be not the Bolshevising of the earth, and thus a victory of Jewry, but the annihilation of the Jewish race in Europe! On that day, Hitler gave a speech in his private apartment at the Reich Chancellery to senior Nazi Party leaders: the Reichsleiter , the most senior, and the Gauleiter , the regional leaders. He warned the Jews that if they were to cause another world war, it would lead to their destruction.
Those were not empty words. Now the world war has come. The destruction of the Jews must be its necessary consequence. We cannot be sentimental about it. Christopher Browning argues that Hitler gave no order during the Reich Chancellery meeting but did make clear that he had intended his warning to the Jews to be taken literally, and he signaled to party leaders that they could give appropriate orders to others. Four days after Hitler's meeting with party leaders, Hans Frank , Governor-General of the General Government area of occupied Poland, who was at the meeting, spoke to district governors: "We must put an end to the Jews I will in principle proceed only on the assumption that they will disappear.
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They must go. Browning interprets this as a meeting to discuss how to justify and speak about the killing. A month later, invitations were sent out again, this time for 20 January. Copy no. There was also discussion about whether to include the German Mischlinge half-Jews.
Under proper guidance, in the course of the Final Solution, the Jews are to be allocated for appropriate labor in the East. Able-bodied Jews, separated according to sex, will be taken in large work columns to these areas for work on roads, in the course of which action doubtless a large portion will be eliminated by natural causes. The possible final remnant will, since it will undoubtedly consist of the most resistant portion, have to be treated accordingly because it is the product of natural selection and would, if released, act as the seed of a new Jewish revival. See the experience of history.
In the course of the practical execution of the Final Solution, Europe will be combed through from west to east. Germany proper, including the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia , will have to be handled first due to the housing problem and additional social and political necessities.
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The evacuated Jews will first be sent, group by group, to so-called transit ghettos, from which they will be transported to the East. At the end of in occupied Poland, the Germans began building additional camps or expanding existing ones. Auschwitz , for example, was expanded in October by building Auschwitz II-Birkenau a few kilometers away. The camps in Austria, Germany and Poland all had gas chambers to kill inmates deemed unable to work. Christian Gerlach writes that over three million Jews were murdered in , the year that "marked the peak" of the mass murder.
To prevent panic, they were told the gas chambers were showers or delousing chambers. At Auschwitz, after the chambers were filled, the doors were shut and pellets of Zyklon-B were dropped into the chambers through vents,  releasing toxic prussic acid. In early , new gas chambers and crematoria were built to accommodate the numbers. At Treblinka, to calm the victims, the arrival platform was made to look like a train station, complete with fake clock. There was almost no resistance in the ghettos in Poland until the end of The best known is the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising in April , when the Germans arrived to send the remaining inhabitants to extermination camps.
From behind the screen of smoke and fire, in which the ranks of fighting Jewish partisans are dying, the legend of the exceptional fighting qualities of the Germans is being undermined. The fighting Jews have won for us what is most important: the truth about the weakness of the Germans. During a revolt in Treblinka on 2 August , inmates killed five or six guards and set fire to camp buildings; several managed to escape.
According to Yitzhak Arad , this was the highest number of SS officers killed in a single revolt. Estimates of Jewish participation in partisan units throughout Europe range from 20, to , The Polish government-in-exile in London learned about Auschwitz from the Polish leadership in Warsaw , who from late "received a continual flow of information" about the camp, according to historian Michael Fleming. An inmate until he escaped in April , his mission was to set up a resistance movement ZOW , prepare to take over the camp, and smuggle out information about it.
The notes were based on reports about mass graves and bodies surfacing from pits and quarries in areas the Red Army had liberated, as well as witness reports from German-occupied areas. His report, known by his pseudonym as the Grojanowski Report , had reached London by June There are different methods of execution. Prisoners condemned to death by the Gestapo are murdered by the first two methods. Fleming writes that the latter was sent to the Polish Embassy in the United States. Winston Churchill received it, and Anthony Eden presented it to the British cabinet.
On 17 December , 11 Allies issued the Joint Declaration by Members of the United Nations condemning the "bestial policy of cold-blooded extermination".
The British and American governments were reluctant to publicize the intelligence they had received. The SS liquidated most of the Jewish ghettos of the General Government area of Poland in — and shipped their populations to the camps for extermination. By it was evident to the armed forces leadership that Germany was losing the war. As the Soviet armed forces advanced, the SS closed down the camps in eastern Poland and made efforts to conceal what had happened.
The gas chambers were dismantled, the crematoria dynamited, and the mass graves dug up and corpses cremated. Some went by truck or wagons; others were marched the entire distance to the new camp. Those who lagged behind or fell were shot. The first major camp to be encountered by Allied troops, Majdanek , was discovered by the advancing Soviets, along with its gas chambers, on 25 July The British 11th Armoured Division found around 60, prisoners 90 percent Jews when they liberated Bergen-Belsen,   as well as 13, unburied corpses; another 10, people died from typhus or malnutrition over the following weeks.
Here over an acre of ground lay dead and dying people. You could not see which was which. The living lay with their heads against the corpses and around them moved the awful, ghostly procession of emaciated, aimless people, with nothing to do and with no hope of life, unable to move out of your way, unable to look at the terrible sights around them Babies had been born here, tiny wizened things that could not live. A mother, driven mad, screamed at a British sentry to give her milk for her child, and thrust the tiny mite into his arms.
He opened the bundle and found the baby had been dead for days. This day at Belsen was the most horrible of my life. The Jews killed represented around one third of world Jewry  and about two-thirds of European Jewry, based on a pre-war estimate of 9. The death camps in occupied Poland accounted for half the Jews killed. Death rates were heavily dependent on the survival of European states willing to protect their Jewish citizens.