During consideration of the combined third to fifth periodic reports of Bulgaria on the implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child in June , the Committee on the Rights of the Child pointed also to discrimination concerning access to education and health care against children from ethnic minorities, primarily Roma, as well as children with disabilities, asylum-seeking children, refugee children and children living in remote areas.
Human rights activists report domestic and sexual violence against women. They also point to the problem relating to lower participation of women in the labor market, maintaining horizontal and vertical occupational segregation between men and women and gender-based wage gaps. Particularly, the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights highlighted this problem while considering the sixth periodic report of Bulgaria on the implementation of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.
The situation of persons with disabilities remains difficult. Necessary elements of infrastructure are absent in the majority of cities, it is difficult for such people to realize their potential in the labor market, and the state is ready to pay social workers only lev which is about Euro per month for an eight-hour work day.
Such salaries discourage those potentially willing to ease the lives of people with disabilities. A number of human rights organizations draw attention to the fact that Bulgarian authorities do not comply with decisions of the European Court of Human Rights. Particularly, the Bulgarian Helsinki Committee points to it in its recent report decisions have not been implemented by December There are difficulties in functioning of religious structures.
Spiritual leaders of Islam are also reported to feel that their rights have been infringed upon. Initiatives to build religious schools in order to educate children about Islam and to publish Muslim literature have been ignored at the local level. The human rights situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina BiH remains generally satisfactory. Sarajevo continues to improve its national legislation and implement international human rights treaties and is committed to fulfilling its international obligations in this field.
According to the annual report by the Commissioner for Human Rights in BiH, the largest number of incidents and complaints in were related to the administration of justice primarily lengthy court proceedings and health care non-payment of insurance, violation of the rights of disabled persons, etc. The case of Sejdic-Finci v. Bosnia and Herzegovina before the European Court of Human Rights is a vivid practical example illustrating the above-mentioned issues.
In December , the ECtHR ruled in their favor, ordering BiH to provide for a mechanism allowing national minorities to participate in these state institutions by introducing relevant amendments to Constitution and electoral law. The implementation of the ECtHR judgment has not yet yielded results, as no agreement has been reached among the leading political forces of the country in this regard.
Bosnia and Herzegovina, which prevent the "others'' from running as candidates for membership in the Presidium and the House of Peoples. Furthermore, the Committee noted with concern the remaining discriminatory provisions in some laws and regulations granting special privileges to the constitutive peoples in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republika Srpska over "others". In this regard, CERD recommended BiH to take specific measures aimed at promoting a more integrated society based on the values of equality and non-discrimination, and where all citizens take part, irrespective of their ethnic, ethno-religious or national affiliations.
According to estimates of the Croatian community, the discriminatory attitude of the Bosniak majority towards the legal rights of the Croatian people in BiH is still observed.
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It is noted that following the general elections in BiH in autumn , Bosnian Croats failed once again to have their legitimate representative in the Presidium. The situation around the failure to hold municipal elections in Mostar, where the population has been unable to exercise their legitimate electoral rights since , is potentially dangerous. CERD expressed its concern regarding the limited representation of ethnic minority groups in decision-making bodies and public positions at entity and local government levels.
However, the number of cases of racial discrimination registered, investigated and brought before both the courts and the Ombudsman is very low . Another category of vulnerable groups in BiH are returnees and displaced persons who face difficulties in their sustainable reintegration into society, full restitution of their property, and access to the labor market and social benefits .
The UN human rights treaty bodies have observed high rates of locating and identifying persons reported missing during the — armed conflict. However, the work in this area is far from complete. For instance, the Committee on Enforced Disappearances noted that the fate and whereabouts of about one third of the 30, persons reported missing as a consequence of the Bosnian conflict remained unknown.
He observed the insufficient budget allocated to the Prosecutor's Office of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the lack of sufficient forensic experts to carry out the work in a timely manner. International monitoring mechanisms expressed concern that hate speech and statements had been reported in public discourse by public and political figures and in the media, including the Internet.
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In particular, this takes the form of nationalist and ethno-religious rhetoric towards returnees, anti-Semitism and intolerance towards Roma and attacks against them. Only a small number of hate crimes were prosecuted in a proper manner. The Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination  and the Human Rights Committee  , among others, drew attention to this problem. BiH has a number of streets and educational institutions named after "figures" of modern and contemporary history.
In February , the students of the Faculty of History of the University in Mostar replaced the street signs with the name of Mile Budak on them at night, with the name of antifascist C. Spuzevic, but the removed signs were brought back to the place in the morning. Due to controversies between Bosniaks and Croats over the administrative structure of Mostar, its city council cannot reach a consensus on street names.
Education remains an area of concern, as ethnic segregation in this field has not yet been fully addressed. The practice of "two schools under one roof" is still common, where children of different nationalities study in the same institution not only under different programs but also on different shifts is still common in areas of the Muslim-Croatian Federation BiH FBiH with a mixed population. Such practices are a matter of serious concern to the Council of Europe and the OSCE and require the Bosnian authorities to put an end to segregation in schools.
Many UN human rights treaty bodies have drawn attention to this issue which undermines reconciliation efforts. Thus, this was noted by the Human Rights Committee in March  , the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination in August the situation in some cantons of Central Bosnia and Herzegovina-Neretva was of particular concern to the committees  and the Committee on the Rights of the Child in September . Educational problems in BiH are often politicized. One example is the debate over the name and language instruction of the Bosniak-Muslim national language in the schools of the Serb entity.
In other cases, the debate is heated by the choice of the adjective "Bosnian" instead of "Bosniak", which is also seen by repatriated refugees as an act of infringement of their rights. The Committee on the Rights of the Child drew attention to broader educational challenges in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
In particular, it was pointed out that many schools were not provided with teaching materials and did not have the necessary teaching equipment. In addition, many school buildings lacked heating and sewage systems. Among children from marginalized families, the largest number of dropouts were from schools. In rural areas, preschool attendance was low, largely due to lack of funding.
The situation with regard to national, ethnic, religious and linguistic minorities in BiH is also complex. Human rights organizations have noted difficulties in ensuring the rights of the country's large Roma community up to 30, persons. The Roma population remains the most marginalized group in BiH. Despite the efforts by local NGOs and the international community, this segment of the population remains under-integrated in the educational process.
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Only 1. No effective mechanisms for the social integration of Roma in BiH have yet been found. Despite the freedom of self-determination on the basis of nationality guaranteed by law, the right to organize and convene meetings to express and protect their cultural, religious, educational, social and economic, as well as economic and political rights, the freedom to use symbols, the right to use their mother tongue, including in social and legal relations in those areas where they constitute more than one third of the population, the right to secondary education in the mother tongue in municipalities where the national minority constitutes more than one third of the population if it is more than one fifth of the population, education in the mother tongue is allowed as an option , in practice these rights and freedoms are not exercised.
Many Roma have to express themselves as Serbs or Bosniaks so that their rights are respected. Only three national minorities in BiH have their own facilities where they hold meetings and events. The situation of the Roma population in BiH, in particular the persistent marginalization of the Roma, obstacles to their integration into society, high levels of unemployment, lack of adequate housing and identity documents, difficulties in accessing health care, as well as low school attendance of Roma children and discriminatory attitudes of teachers towards Roma students, were emphasized by the Human Rights Committee in March  , the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination in August  and the Committee on the Rights of the Child in September .
The status of women in BiH is below the European average in many respects.
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Despite the existing legislative framework BiH Law on Prohibition of Discrimination of and Law on Gender Equality revised the same year , the bodies responsible for gender equality lack functionality and efficiency. The problem of violence against women was noted by the UN human rights treaty bodies. Thus, in March , the Human Rights Committee drew attention to the inadequacy of protection and assistance measures to victims of violence.
The Committee against Torture also observed the inadequacy of protection measures and insufficient assistance to victims. According to the Agency for Statistics of BiH, about , children are in a difficult family situation, of whom 40, live in families with incomes below the minimum subsistence level.
The authorities hope to solve the problem by adopting a draft law on support to families with children in FBiH at the parliamentary level. Vandalism against the facilities of all three major confessions Islam, Orthodoxy and Catholicism is not uncommon in Bosnia and Herzegovina. No mass violations of the rights of Russian citizens and compatriots were BiH.
In , three Russian citizens, including the writer Zakhar Prilepin, were denied entry to BiH, allegedly on the grounds that their "presence in the country threatens security, public order, peace as well as international relations of BiH". Despite the adoption in recent years of a number of laws aimed at improving the situation with regard to the media and the right to freedom of expression, violations of journalists' rights and pressure on media have been recorded in BiH. Most of the local press, radio and television are kept under close supervision by certain national and political elites and receive grants from foreign states.
As a result, there is a difference in interpretation of the same events, a biased presentation of the recent tragic past, which is a negative aspect on the way of rapprochement of the Bosnian peoples.
All this suggests that free access to information in BiH is not fully ensured. The United Kingdom positions itself as the benchmark in promotion and protection of human rights while showing utter disregard for principles of sovereign equality and non-interference in internal affairs of States. They include increased racism, comfortable existence in the territory of the country of various organizations with neo-Nazi and racist ideologies, discrimination of ethnic minorities in many areas of public life, well-documented abuse of powers and use of torture by law enforcement officials, and activity of a pedophiles network.
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This list is far from exhaustive. Besides, it should be mentioned that crimes of British soldiers against civilians during military campaigns in Afghanistan and Iraq remain unpunished. The modern British political correctness largely prefers to ignore the painful issue of neo-Nazi organizations' activity in the country. British far-right and nationalist organizations are distinctly marginal. It is against mass migration to the country and highly critical of the creation of a "federal Super-State in Europe", i.
European Union. For a long time the BNP's slogans have included such concepts, as preservation of values of the "white" British family, complete closure of the border for immigrants and repatriation of those who already arrived in the country. Its supporters have not once put forward anti-Semitic ideas and called the Holocaust a "historical hoax". The BNP's goals include consolidation of the global, primarily, the European camp of the far-right. In the elections to the European Parliament the BNP received two seats, which is its best political "performance".
The BNP still claims the leadership in the British nationalist camp. Another British Nazi organization, which is worth mentioning, is Britain First, founded in by former BNP members , which is against the Islamization of the UK and mass migration to the country. Its partisans declare as its main objective the protection of the traditional British way of life, ethnic and cultural heritage and Christianity.
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The Party supports the earliest Brexit to "to save this country and our people from the EU, and the politically correct, multicultural insanity that is now engulfing us" and it has a paramilitary action force named the Britain First Defence Force. The Organization captured attention in by a number of provocative actions against Muslims in London, Glasgow and Luton attacks on mosques, forced distribution of propaganda anti-Muslim booklets and protests in the vicinity of homes of local community leaders.
Also in London, they organized "Christian patrols" of 12 activists total to counter Islamic extremism their actions were condemned by religious leaders of both the Muslim community and the Anglican Church. This is an informal, predominantly youth movement, which openly opposes the Islamization of the country. Their main activity includes marchers and demonstrations, organization of public protests against construction of new mosques and against attributes of the Islamic culture imposed on the British.