Legge and Brooman argue that the success of the Bill lay in the personality of "Humanity Dick", who was able to shrug off the ridicule from the House of Commons, and whose sense of humour managed to capture the House's attention. Burns was fined, and newspapers and music halls were full of jokes about how Martin had relied on the testimony of a donkey. Other countries followed suit in passing legislation or making decisions that favoured animals. In , the courts in New York ruled that wanton cruelty to animals was a misdemeanor at common law.
That a committee be appointed to superintend the Publication of Tracts, Sermons, and similar modes of influencing public opinion, to consist of the following Gentlemen:. Sir Jas. MP, Wm. Wilberforce Esqr. MP, Basil Montagu Esqr.
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A Broome, Revd. Mudford Esqr. That a Committee be appointed to adopt measures for Inspecting the Markets and Streets of the Metropolis, the Slaughter Houses, the conduct of Coachmen, etc. T F Buxton Esqr. MP, Richard Martin Esqr.
Brogden Esqr. T G Meymott Esqr.
Honorary Secretary . Richard Martin soon realized that magistrates did not take the Martin Act seriously, and that it was not being reliably enforced. Martin's Act was supported by various social reformers who were not parliamentarians and an informal network had gathered around the efforts of Reverend Arthur Broome to create a voluntary organisation that would promote kindness toward animals. Broome canvassed opinions in letters that were published or summarised in various periodicals in Broome organised and chaired a meeting of sympathisers in November , where it was agreed that a Society should be created and at which Broome was named its Secretary, but the attempt was short-lived.
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They decided to form a "Society instituted for the purpose of preventing cruelty to animals"; the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals , as it became known. It determined to send men to inspect slaughterhouses, Smithfield Market , where livestock had been sold since the 10th century, and to look into the treatment of horses by coachmen.
From onwards, several books were published, analyzing animal rights issues, rather than protection alone. Edward Nicholson — , head of the Bodleian Library at the University of Oxford, argued in Rights of an Animal that animals have the same natural right to life and liberty that human beings do, disregarding Descartes' mechanistic view—or what he called the "Neo-Cartesian snake"—that they lack consciousness.
The development in England of the concept of animal rights was strongly supported by the German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer — He wrote that Europeans were "awakening more and more to a sense that beasts have rights, in proportion as the strange notion is being gradually overcome and outgrown, that the animal kingdom came into existence solely for the benefit and pleasure of man. He stopped short of advocating vegetarianism, arguing that, so long as an animal's death was quick, men would suffer more by not eating meat than animals would suffer by being eaten. Thus, because Christian morality leaves animals out of account They can therefore be used for vivisection, hunting, coursing, bullfights, and horse racing, and can be whipped to death as they struggle along with heavy carts of stone.
Shame on such a morality that is worthy of pariahs, chandalas , and mlechchhas , and that fails to recognize the eternal essence that exists in every living thing The English poet and dramatist Percy Bysshe Shelley — wrote two essays advocating a vegetarian diet, for ethical and health reasons: A Vindication of Natural Diet and On the Vegetable System of Diet , posth. Isabella Beeton the English reporter, editor and author of Mrs Beeton's Book of Household Management was an early advocate against force-fed poultry and caged hens.
About the former, she wrote that force-feeding, was a process that "may produce a handsome-looking bird, and it may weigh enough to satisfy the whim or avarice of its stuffer; but, when before the fire, it will reveal the cruel treatment to which it has been subjected, and will weep a drippingpan-ful of fat tears.
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You will never find heart enough to place such a grief-worn guest at the head of your table". About the necessity for free-range rather than caged hens, she wrote: .
We have known amateur fowl-keepers This system will not do. It may be urged, in the case of domestic fowls, that from constant disuse, and from clipping and plucking, and other sorts of maltreatment, their wings can hardly be regarded as instruments of flight; we maintain, however, that you may pluck a fowl's wing-joints as bare as a pumpkin, but you will not erase from his memory that he is a fowl, and that his proper sphere is the open air.
If he likewise reflects that he is an ill-used fowl — a prison-bird — he will then come to the conclusion, that there is not the least use, under such circumstances, for his existence; and you must admit that the decision is only logical and natural. John Stuart Mill — , the English philosopher, also argued that utilitarianism must take animals into account, writing in [ year verification needed ] "Nothing is more natural to human beings, nor, up to a certain point in cultivation, more universal, than to estimate the pleasures and pains of others as deserving of regard exactly in proportion to their likeness to ourselves.
Granted that any practice causes more pain to animals than it gives pleasure to man; is that practice moral or immoral? And if, exactly in proportion as human beings raise their heads out of the slough of selfishness, they do not with one voice answer 'immoral,' let the morality of the principle of utility be for ever condemned. James Rachels writes that Charles Darwin 's — On the Origin of Species —which presented the theory of evolution by natural selection —revolutionized the way humans viewed their relationship with other species. Not only did human beings have a direct kinship with other animals, but the latter had social, mental and moral lives too, Darwin argued.
Rachels writes that Darwin noted the moral implications of the cognitive similarities, arguing that "humanity to the lower animals" was one of the "noblest virtues with which man is endowed. He wrote in a letter that he supported vivisection for "real investigations on physiology; but not for mere damnable and detestable curiosity.
It is a subject which makes me sick with horror Rachels writes that the animal rights advocates of the day, such as Frances Power Cobbe, did not see Darwin as an ally. An early proposal for legal rights for animals came from a group of citizens in Ashtabula County, Ohio.
Around , the group proposed an amendment to the U. Bergh had been appointed by President Abraham Lincoln to a diplomatic post in Russia, and had been disturbed by the mistreatment of animals he witnessed there. He consulted with the president of the RSPCA in London, and returned to the United States to speak out against bullfights, cockfights, and the beating of horses. He created a "Declaration of the Rights of Animals", and in persuaded the New York state legislature to pass anti-cruelty legislation and to grant the ASPCA the authority to enforce it.
In , the Irish social reformer Frances Power Cobbe — founded the Society for the Protection of Animals Liable to Vivisection, the world's first organization opposed to animal research, which became the National Anti-Vivisection Society. In , the English feminist Anna Kingsford — became one of the first English women to graduate in medicine, after studying for her degree in Paris, and the only student at the time to do so without having experimented on animals. She was also vocal in her opposition to experimentation on animals.
Ryder writes that, as the interest in animal protection grew in the late s, attitudes toward animals among scientists began to harden. They embraced the idea that what they saw as anthropomorphism —the attribution of human qualities to nonhumans—was unscientific. Animals had to be approached as physiological entities only, as Ivan Pavlov wrote in , "without any need to resort to fantastic speculations as to the existence of any possible subjective states.
Avoiding utilitarianism, Friedrich Nietzsche — found other reasons to defend animals. He wrote that "The sight of blind suffering is the spring of the deepest emotion. At tragedies, bull-fights, and crucifixions hath he hitherto been happiest on earth; and when he invented his hell, behold, that was his heaven on earth. In , Henry Salt — , a former master at Eton , who had set up the Humanitarian League to lobby for a ban on hunting the year before, published Animals' Rights: Considered in Relation to Social Progress. Even the leading advocates of animal rights seem to have shrunk from basing their claim on the only argument which can ultimately be held to be a really sufficient one—the assertion that animals, as well as men, though, of course, to a far less extent than men, are possessed of a distinctive individuality, and, therefore, are in justice entitled to live their lives with a due measure of that "restricted freedom" to which Herbert Spencer alludes.
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He argued that there was no point in claiming rights for animals if those rights were subordinated to human desire, and took issue with the idea that the life of a human might have more moral worth. If we are ever going to do justice to the lower races, we must get rid of the antiquated notion of a 'great gulf' fixed between them and mankind, and must recognize the common bond of humanity that unites all living beings in one universal brotherhood. In , Lizzy Lind af Hageby — , a Swedish feminist, and a friend, Lisa Shartau, traveled to England to study medicine at the London School of Medicine for Women, intending to learn enough to become authoritative anti-vivisection campaigners.
In the course of their studies, they witnessed several animal experiments, and published the details as The Shambles of Science: Extracts from the Diary of Two Students of Physiology Their allegations included that they had seen a brown terrier dog dissected while conscious, which prompted angry denials from the researcher, William Bayliss , and his colleagues.
After Stephen Coleridge of the National Anti-Vivisection Society accused Bayliss of having violated the Cruelty to Animals Act , Bayliss sued and won, convincing a court that the animal had been anesthetized as required by the Act. In response, anti-vivisection campaigners commissioned a statue of the dog to be erected in Battersea Park in , with the plaque: "Men and Women of England, how long shall these Things be?
The affair culminated in riots in when 1, medical students clashed with police, suffragettes and trade unionists in Trafalgar Square. Battersea Council removed the statue from the park under cover of darkness two years later. Coral Lansbury and Hilda Kean write that the significance of the affair lay in the relationships that formed in support of the "Brown Dog Done to Death", which became a symbol of the oppression the women's suffrage movement felt at the hands of the male political and medical establishment. Kean argues that both sides saw themselves as heirs to the future.
The students saw the women and trade unionists as representatives of anti-science sentimentality, and the women saw themselves as progressive, with the students and their teachers belonging to a previous age. Members of the English Vegetarian Society who avoided the use of eggs and animal milk in the 19th and early 20th century were known as strict vegetarians.
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The International Vegetarian Union cites an article informing readers of alternatives to shoe leather in the Vegetarian Society's magazine in as evidence of the existence of a group that sought to avoid animal products entirely. There was increasing unease within the Society from the start of the 20th century onwards with regards to egg and milk consumption, and in its magazine wrote that the "ideal position for vegetarians is [complete] abstinence from animal products.
Mahatma Gandhi — argued in before a meeting of the Society in London that vegetarianism should be pursued in the interests of animals, and not only as a human health issue. Salt wrote in the pamphlet that "a Vegetarian is still regarded, in ordinary society, as little better than a madman. Watson coined the term "vegan" for those whose diet included no animal products, and they formed the British Vegan Society on November 1 that year. On coming to power in January , the Nazi Party passed a comprehensive set of animal protection laws.
Arnold Arluke and Boria Sax wrote that the Nazis tried to abolish the distinction between humans and animals, to the point where many people were regarded as less valuable than animals. By most accounts their vegetarianism was not as strict as Hitler's. Despite the proliferation of animal protection legislation, animals still had no legal rights. Debbie Legge writes that existing legislation was very much tied to the idea of human interests, whether protecting human sensibilities by outlawing cruelty, or protecting property rights by making sure animals were not harmed.
The over-exploitation of fishing stocks, for example, is viewed as harming the environment for people; the hunting of animals to extinction means that humans in the future will derive no enjoyment from them; poaching results in financial loss to the owner, and so on. Notwithstanding the interest in animal welfare of the previous century, the situation for animals deteriorated in the 20th century, particularly after the Second World War. This was in part because of the increase in the numbers used in animal research— in the UK in , 19, in , and 2.