The secular Zionist establishment would not allow the established Haredi community in Palestine to be represented in the Jewish Agency in the s [ citation needed ]. In response, the Haredim founded an Agudath Israel branch in Jerusalem to represent their interests in Mandate Palestine. The leader of the Haredi Jews in Palestine at the time, Rabbi Yosef Chaim Sonnenfeld, chose de Haan to organise and represent the Haredi position as their foreign minister ,  on a diplomatic level equal to that of the secular Zionists. He spoke about the tyranny of the official Zionist movement.
The journalists of the Northcliffe party gleefully reported all that back home. As a result of this contact, De Haan was appointed correspondent for the Daily Express , a one-penny paper that made much of everyday scandals. Already in Dutch circles he was the reputed volksverrader , traitor of his own people, and now his views spread throughout Great Britain and its Global Empire. Although his messages were short and few compared to his articles in the Handelsblad the news from the Middle East in the Daily Express was more concerned with the mysteries of the tomb of Tutankhamun in the Valley of the Kings in Egypt than with the intricate Palestine politics the Zionist authorities both in Palestine and London became very worried.
There was a great potential danger from these critical reports from a Jew who actually lived and worked right on this hot spot. De Haan, speaking on behalf of Agudath Israel, even opposed the British authorities allocating separate benefits to the Zionist-led Yishuv. In August [ citation needed ] De Haan also met in Amman with the Hashemite leader Emir Hussein bin Ali , and his son, Emir Abdullah , the future king of independent Transjordan ,  seeking their support for the Old Yishuv the pre-Zionist Jewish community in the Holy Land , explaining the Haredi Jewish opposition to the Zionist plans of founding a state, and supporting the establishment of an official Palestinian state within the Emirate of Transjordan as part of a federation.
As part of his anti-Zionist activity, de Haan was just about to leave for London  when he was assassinated in Jerusalem by the Haganah on the early morning of 30 June De Haan died minutes later. At first, the Palestinian Jewish society, the Yishuv, readily accepted the theory that the assassination had to be blamed on Arabs, and didn't doubt the Zionist leadership's reassurances that it had played no part in it.
The publication of De Haan: The first political assassination in Palestine , by Shlomo Nakdimon and Shaul Mayzlish,  revived wider interest in his assassination. Nakdimon and Mayzlish were able to trace Tehomi, then a businessman living in Hong Kong. Tehomi was interviewed for Israeli TV by Nakdimon and stated that Yitzhak Ben-Zvi, who later became the second President of Israel , must have ordered the assassination: "I have done what the Haganah decided had to be done. And nothing was done without the order of Yitzhak Ben-Zvi I have no regrets because he de Haan wanted to destroy our whole idea of Zionism.
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According to Gert Hekma, Zionists spread a rumour he had been killed by Arabs because of his sexual relations with Arab boys. De Haan was buried on the Mount of Olives. His funeral was attended by hundreds of Haredim, along with Zionist and British representatives. Following the funeral, many Haredim ventured into the city center to confront Zionists, and were barely restrained by the police.
The headquarters of Agudath Israel received condolences from the Palestine government, the French and Spanish consuls in Jerusalem, and various cables from around the world. A young pioneer named Yaakov Gussman was briefly detained by the British police on suspicion of carrying out the assassination, but released for lack of evidence.
The assassination caused shock in Palestine and Europe. Senior Zionist leaders, among them David Ben-Gurion , blamed each other. There was widespread speculation as to the identity of the assassin, with the theories postulated including him being a Zionist, a Haredi enraged over the revelations of De Haan's homosexuality, or an Arab lover.
De Haan's murder is considered the first political murder in the Jewish community in Palestine. His activities were perceived as undermining the struggle for the establishment of a Jewish state, but the assassination sparked a controversy and was harshly condemned by some. Labor movement publicist Moshe Beilinson wrote:.
The flag of our movement must not be tarnished. Neither by the blood of the innocent, nor by the blood of the guilty. Otherwise - our movement will be bad, because blood draws other bloods.
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Blood always takes revenge and if you walk down this path once, you do not know where it would lead you. In Neturei Karta circles De Haan is considered a martyr, killed by secular Jews while protecting the Jewish religion; nevertheless, most Haredim recoil from his homosexuality, his religious questioning and his attempted coalition with the Arab nationalists against his fellow Jews.
Although De Haan's fame waned after his death, his works have been published and reprinted in a fairly constant stream. Even under the Nazi occupation of the Netherlands , David Koker managed to publish his Brieven uit Jeruzalem 'Letters from Jerusalem' in a little book. In , a committee was founded with the object to publish a collected edition of the poems, which duly followed in In the s two attempts at a biography were published, and after an actual De Haan-revival brought with it a flood of publicity.
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Many of his publications about law and significs have been reprinted, as were his novels, and his earlier prose has been rescued from obscure magazines. Dozens of bibliophile editions honoured his poems and prose sketches. Many magazine articles and other publications about his life were published, and generated heated debates. A large volume of his correspondence only of the period , published in , shed a bright light on his life, but a full-scale biography has yet to be written.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Not to be confused with the composer Jacob de Haan. Poetry portal. University of Amsterdam Library. Retrieved Unlike their German peers, Dutch homosexuals were not systematically persecuted. Their social position during the war years hardly differed from the way it had been prior to May In fact, more prosecutions were instigated in the late s than before the War Koenders ; Van der Meer and Hekma NWHK had been discontinued immediately after the German invasion, but a new organization was founded on December 7, The third conference, in , also took place in Amsterdam, and was attended by prominent Dutch academics as well as representatives of mental health and religious organizations.
Even the Dutch bishops sent a delegation of psychiatrists and psychologists Warmerdam and Koenders , — COC frequently invited experts to give or attend lectures. One of them was the prominent sexologist C. While the author—a nonreligious Jew—meant to emphasize that homophobia was as irrational and harmful as antisemitism or racism, one could also conclude that religion was the root of this evil. Although Dutch sexual morals were hardly more permissive after the war than they had been, many people joined the Netherlands Association for Sexual Reform est.
Extramarital intercourse should be avoided, but masturbation was not a hanging matter. Moreover, there was nothing wrong with contraception, because the main function of sex was not reproduction but expression of love. Their church attendance was unusually high, as were birth rates, the number of vocations, and the number of Catholic civil society organizations, which kept the faithful on the straight and narrow and gave them collective political power.
Within a few years, the Dutch Province of the Roman Catholic Church became by far the most progressive in Europe, if not in the world. In his very first television talk on March 21, , one of the new bishops stated that only the spouses themselves could decide how many children they wanted and when. In that same year the contraceptive pill—packaged by nuns in an enclosed order—was launched on the Dutch market. The New Catechism , commissioned and authorized by the Dutch bishops, also initially suggested that the Second Vatican Council had allowed the use of contraceptives.
The dense infrastructure of Catholic organization, which had been designed to shield the flock from the siren song of modernity, turned into a motorway for the dissemination of progressive ideas Coleman , also on sexuality. In , they published a booklet that cautiously called for acceptance.
Protestants published a similar pocket book, titled De homosexuele naaste The homosexual neighbor , which even included an anonymous contribution of one such neighbor. In another chapter, already published in a neo-Calvinist periodical in , a pastor of the RCN argued that the Bible only condemns same-sex pederasty, prostitution, and other sexual abuses associated with pagan worship. Do not judge, but be outraged.
Even if your own parents, your friends, your church have rejected you; even if they hush you up [to death], God accepts you the way you are. Together with the Rev. Dozens of Catholic and mainline Protestant clergymen joined, adopting the pastoral approach aimed at self- acceptance. At a time when the latter were hardly visible and their organizations barely had a voice, pastors stood up for them by not only listening to them in the privacy of their parlors but also making them heard. If God ever lets Himself be captured again in Living Matter, He will return as a Donkey, capable at most of formulating a few syllables, disowned, maligned, and whacked, but I will understand Him and directly go to bed with Him, but I will swathe His sweet little hooves, so as not to get too many scratches, when he thrashes while coming.
Jacob Israël de Haan
Van het Reve Brussaard and Gottschalk protested, concerned that this offensive text would harm the budding acceptance of homophiles. In , the Supreme Court of the Netherlands acquitted him of all charges; one year later he was awarded the state prize for Dutch literature. Modernity, then, did not preclude religion. Dutch Catholics—unlike the ultraorthodox Protestants who had started the trial and disproving their alleged cultural backwardness—had shown themselves every bit as modern as secular Dutch citizens.
Van het Reve embodied both homosexual and Catholic emancipation, the two of which went hand in hand in these years cf.